Cloisters of Saint John Lateran, Rome. Source:

Wednesday, 29 March 2017

Wednesday Of The Fourth Week In Lent. The Lenten Station Is At The Basilica Of Saint Paul-Without-The-Walls.

Text from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal,
unless otherwise stated.

Wednesday of The Fourth Week in Lent.
   Station at Saint Paul-without-the-Walls.

Indulgence of 10 Years and 10 Quarantines.

Violet Vestments.

English: Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls, Rome, Italy.
Deutsch: Rom, Sankt Paul vor den Mauern.
Italiano: Statua di San Paolo di fronte alla facciata della
Photo: May 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: Berthold Werner.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Station was held at Rome in the great Basilica of Saint Paul, on The Ostian Way. It was natural to assemble near the tomb of The Doctor of The Gentiles on this day, called The Feria of The Great Scrutiny, when they held the The Examination, upon which depended the admission of Catechumens to Baptism.

After the singing of the Introit, which announces the Baptism in which God “will pour on the Souls the water which will cleanse them from all stain,” the Catechumens were exorcised anew, were marked with The Sign of The Cross and received The Imposition of Hands. This water has already purified us.

After having read the Epistle, or the Lessons from the Prophets, Ezechiel and Isaias, who speak of this same purification, “when Souls shall be made White as Snow,” the beginning of The Four Gospels was read to them and The Apostles’ Creed and Pater Noster explained to them. Let us love to read The Gospels, let us often recite The Credo and The Pater Noster.

English: Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls, Rome, Italy. With its length
of 432 feet, this Basilica ranks eleventh among the largest Churches in the World.
Français: Basilique Saint-Paul-hors-les-Murs, Vatican, située à Rome. Avec sa longueur
de 131,66 mètres, cette Basilique se classe au 11è rang parmi les plus grandes églises au monde.
Photo: September 2010.
Source: Own work.
Author: Tango7174
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Gospel tells us of the healing of the man, blind from birth, who was sent to wash himself in The Pool of Siloe. This is another symbol of Baptism and of the instructions preceding it, which conveyed to the Gentiles the Supernatural Light of which they were deprived, and gave Penance from the defilements which have unfortunately stained our Baptismal innocence, and God will make our Souls White as Snow.

Aware that Fasting is, for The Just Man, a means of increasing his Merits, and, for The Guilty, of obtaining forgiveness for his sins (Collect), let us with courage mortify our bodies so that we may enjoy more readily the things that are of Heaven.

Mass: Cum sanctificátus.

English: Statue of Saint Paul.
Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the Walls, Rome, Italy.
Photo: July 2007.
Source: Own work.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The following Text is from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia.

The Papal Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls, (Italian: Basilica Papale di San Paolo fuori le Mura), is one of Rome's four ancient Major Basilicas or Papal Basilicas, which are: The Basilicas of Saint John Lateran; Saint Mary Major; Saint Peter's; Saint Paul-without-the Walls. James Michael Harvey was named Arch-Priest of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls Basilica in 2012.

The Basilica was Founded by The Roman Emperor, Constantine I, over the burial place of Saint Paul, where it was said that, after the Apostle's execution, his followers erected a Memorial, called a "cella memoriae". This first edifice was expanded under Emperor Valentinian I in the 370s A.D.

In 386 A.D., Emperor Theodosius I began erecting a much larger and more beautiful Basilica, with a Nave and four Aisles, with a Transept; the work, including the mosaics, was not completed until Pope Leo I's Pontificate (440 A.D. – 461 A.D).

English: Facade of The Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls, Rome.
Polski: Bazylika św. Pawła za Murami.
Italiano: Facciata della Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura a Roma.
Photo: June 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: [Piofol[1]]
(Wikimedia Commons)

In the 5th-Century A.D., it was larger than the Old Saint Peter's Basilica. The Christian poet, Prudentius, who saw it at the time of Emperor Honorius (395 A.D. – 423 A.D), describes the splendours of the Monument in a few expressive lines. As it was Dedicated also to Saints Taurinus and Herculanus, Martyrs of Ostia in the 5th-Century A.D., it was called the Basilica trium Dominorum ("Basilica of The Three Lords").

Under Pope Gregory the Great (590 A.D. – 604 A.D.), the Basilica was extensively modified. The Pavement was raised to place the Altar directly over Saint Paul's tomb.

English: The mosaic on the facade of
the Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls, Rome.
Italiano: Il grande mosaico della facciata della basilica
di San Paolo fuori le Mura, a Roma.
Photo: March 2010.
Source: Own work.
Author: Luca Camellini.
(Wikimedia Commons)

In that period, there were two Monasteries near the Basilica: Saint Aristus's, for men, and Saint Stefano's, for women. Masses were Celebrated by a special Body of Clerics, instituted by Pope Simplicius. Over time, the Monasteries' and the Basilica's Clergy declined; Pope Saint Gregory II restored the former and entrusted the Monks with the Basilica's care.

As it lay outside The Aurelian Walls, the Basilica was damaged in the 9th-Century A.D., during The Saracen invasions. Consequently, Pope John VIII (872 A.D. – 882 A.D.) fortified the Basilica, the Monastery, and the dwellings of the peasantry, forming the Town of Joannispolis (Italian: Giovannipoli), which existed until 1348, when an earthquake totally destroyed it.

English: Cloisters of the Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls, Rome.
Deutsch: Kreuzgang der Basilika San Paolo fuori le Mura, Rom.
Blick vom Säulengang in den Innenhof.
Photo: October 2008.
Source: Own work.
Author: W.W.Thaler, Herbert Weber, Hildesheim.
(Wikimedia Commons)

In 937 A.D., when Saint Odo of Cluny came to Rome, Alberic II of Spoleto, Patrician of Rome, entrusted the Monastery and Basilica to his Congregation and Odo placed Balduino of Monte Cassino in charge. Pope Gregory VII was Abbot of the Monastery and, in his time, Pantaleone, a rich merchant of Amalfi, who lived in Constantinople, presented the Bronze Doors of the Basilica Maior; the Doors are inscribed with Pantaleone's Prayer that the "Doors of Life" may be opened to him.

English: Territorial Abbot's Coat-of-Arms.
Pope Martin V (Papacy 1417 - 1431) entrusted the Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls to the Monks of The Congregation of Monte Cassino. It was then made an Abbey Nullius (Territorial Abbey). The Coat-of-Arms of a "Territorial Abbot" are distinguished by a Green Galero,
with Twelve Tassels, and a Gold Crozier, with a Veil attached.
Polski: Herb opata. Piotr Jaworski, PioM; 19 V 2005r., POLAND/Poznań;
(Wikimedia Commons)

Pope Martin V entrusted the Basilica to the Monks of The Congregation of Monte Cassino. It was then made an Abbey Nullius. The Abbot's jurisdiction extended over the Districts of Civitella San Paolo, Leprignano, and Nazzano, all of which formed Parishes. But the Parish of San Paolo in Rome is under the jurisdiction of The Cardinal Vicar.

English: Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls, Rome, Italy.
Français: Basilique Saint-Paul-hors-les-Murs, Vatican,
située à Rome, Latium, Italie. Perspective du transept.
Photo: September 2010.
Source: Own work.
Author: Tango7174.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The graceful Cloisters of the Monastery were erected between 1220 and 1241. From 1215 until 1964, the Basilica was The Seat of The Latin Patriarch of Alexandria.

On 15 July 1823, a fire, started through the negligence of a workman who was repairing the lead of the roof, resulted in the almost total destruction of the Basilica, which, alone of all the Churches of Rome, had preserved its primitive character for one thousand four hundred and thirty-five years.

It was re-opened in 1840, and re-Consecrated in 1855 in the presence of Pope Pius IX and fifty Cardinals. Completing the work of reconstruction took longer, however, and many Countries made their contributions. The Viceroy of Egypt sent Pillars of alabaster, the Emperor of Russia the precious malachite and lapis lazuli of the Tabernacle. The work on the principal facade, looking toward the Tiber, was completed by the Italian Government, which declared the Church a National Monument. On 23 April 1891, an explosion at Porta Portese destroyed the Stained Glass.

The Cloisters,
Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls,
Rome, Italy.
Source: Pierers Universal-Lexikon, 1891.
Scanned by --Immanuel Giel 12:37, 1 Jun 2005 (UTC).
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: Architectural elements of the Cloisters at
The Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls.
Deutsch: Kreuzgang in der Basilika Major
San Paolo fuori le Mura, Rom, 2005.
Photo: 2005.10.11.
Source: Own work.
Author: W.W.Thaler Herbert Weber, Hildesheim.
(Wikimedia Commons)

On 31 May 2005, Pope Benedict XVI ordered the Basilica to come under the control of an
Arch-Priest and he named Archbishop Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo as its first

The covered Portico that precedes the facade is a Neo-Classicist addition of the 19th-Century reconstruction. The 20th-Century Door includes the remains of the "leaves" from the original Portal, executed by Staurachius of Chios, around 1070, in Constantinople, with scenes from The New and Old Testaments. On the Right, is The Holy Door, which is opened only during The Jubilees.

English: Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls,
Rome, Italy.
The Tabernacle of The Confession.
Italiano: Basilica di San Paolo fuori le mura (Roma) -
ciborio di Arnolfo di Cambio.
Polski: Bazylika św. Pawła za Murami w Rzymie - grób św.
Pawła, przykryty gotyckim baldachimem.
Photo: May 2010.
Source: Own work.
Author: Fczarnowski.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The new Basilica has maintained the original structure with one Nave and four Aisles. It is 131 metres (432 ft) long, 65 metres (213 ft) wide, 29 metres (97 ft) high, the second-largest Basilica in Rome.

The Nave's eighty Columns and its stucco-decorated Ceiling are from the 19th-Century. All that remains of the ancient Basilica are the interior portion of the Apse with The Triumphal Arch. The mosaics of the Apse, by Pietro Cavallini, were mostly lost in the 1823 fire; only a few traces were incorporated in the reconstruction.

The 5th-Century A.D. mosaics of The Triumphal Arch are original: an inscription in the lower section attest they were done at the time of Pope Leo I, paid for by Galla Placidia. The subject portrays The Apocalypse of Saint John, with the bust of Christ in the middle, flanked by the twenty-four Doctors of The Church [now, thirty-four Doctors of The Church], surmounted by the flying symbols of The Four Evangelists. Saint Peter and Saint Paul are portrayed at the Right and Left of the Arch, the latter pointing downwards (probably to his tomb). The "Tabernacle of The Confession" of Arnolfo di Cambio (1285), belongs to the 13th-Century.

English: The Cloisters, The Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls.
Deutsch: Säulen des Kreuzgangs von San Paolo fuori le Mura, Rom.
Photo: October 2008.
Source: Own work.
(Wikimedia Commons)

In the old Basilica, each Pope had his portrait in a frieze, extending above the Columns separating the four Aisles and Nave. A 19th-Century version can be seen now. The Nave's Interior Walls were also re-decorated with scenes from Saint Paul's life in two mosaics. The Sacristy contains a fine statue of Pope Boniface IX.

South of the Transept, are the Cloisters, considered "one of the most beautiful of The Middle Ages". Built by Vassalletto in 1205-1241, they have Double Columns of different shapes. Some Columns have inlays with golden- and coloured-glass mosaics; the same decoration can be seen on the Architrave and the inner frame of the Cloisters. Also visible are fragments from the destroyed Basilica and ancient Sarcophagi, one with scenes of the myth of Apollo.

According to Tradition, Paul's body was buried two miles away from the place of his Martyrdom, in the sepulchral area along The Ostiense Way, which was owned by a Christian woman, named Lucina. A Tropaeum was erected on it and quickly became a place of Veneration.

English: Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls,
Rome, Italy. The Saint Laurence Chapel.
Français: Basilique Saint-Paul-hors-les-Murs, Vatican, située à
Rome, Latium, Italie. Chapelle de Saint-Laurent.
Photo: September 2010.
Source: Own work.
Author: Tango7174.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Emperor Constantine I erected a Basilica on the Tropaeum's site, and the Basilica was significantly extended by Emperor Theodosius I from 386 A.D., into what is now known as Saint Paul-without-the Walls. During the 4th-Century A.D., Saint Paul's remains, excluding the head, were moved into a Sarcophagus (according to Church Tradition, the head rests at The Lateran).

Saint Paul's tomb is below a marble tombstone in the Basilica's Crypt, at 1.3 metres (4.5 ft) below the Altar. The tombstone bears the Latin inscription "PAULO APOSTOLO MART" ("to Paul the Apostle and Martyr"). The inscribed portion of the tombstone has three holes, two square and one circular. The circular hole is connected to the tomb by a pipeline, reflecting the Roman custom of pouring perfumes inside the Sarcophagus, or to the practice of providing the bones of the dead with libations. The discovery of the Sarcophagus is mentioned in the chronicle of The Benedictine Monastery attached to the Basilica, in regard to the 19th-Century rebuilding. Unlike other Sarcophagi found at that time, this was not mentioned in the excavation papers.

On 6 December 2006, it was announced that Vatican archaeologists had confirmed the presence of a White Marble Sarcophagus beneath the Altar, perhaps containing the remains of the Apostle. A Press Conference, held on 11 December 2006, gave more details of the excavation, which lasted from 2002 to 2006, and which had been initiated after Pilgrims to the Basilica expressed disappointment that the Apostle's tomb could not be visited or touched during The Jubilee Year of 2000. The Sarcophagus was not extracted from its position, so that only one of its two narrow sides is visible.

English: The Saint Benedict Chapel,
Basilica of Saint Paul-without-the-Walls.
Italiano: Basilica di San Paolo Fuori le Mura - capella di san Benedetto.
Polski: Bazylika św. Pawła za Murami w Rzymie - kaplica św. Benedykta.
Photo: May 2010.
Source: Own work.
Author: Fczarnowski.
(Wikimedia Commons)

On 29 June 2009, Pope Benedict XVI announced that Carbon-14 Dating of bone fragments in the Sarcophagus confirmed a date in the 1st- or 2nd-Century A.D. "This seems to confirm the unanimous and uncontested Tradition that they are the mortal remains of The Apostle Paul", Benedict announced at a Service in the Basilica to mark the end of The Vatican's Pauline Year in honour of the Apostle. With the bone fragments, archaeologists discovered some grains of incense, and pieces of Purple Linen with Gold Sequins and Blue Linen Textiles.

A curved line of bricks, indicating the outline of the Apse of the Constantinian Basilica, was discovered immediately to the West of the Sarcophagus, showing that the original Basilica had its entrance to the East, like Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican. The larger 386 A.D. Basilica, that replaced it, had the Via Ostiense (the road to Ostia) to The East and so was extended Westward, towards The River Tiber, changing the orientation diametrically.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...