Cloisters of Saint John Lateran, Rome. Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ern/50642555/

Sunday, 15 July 2018

Saint Henry. "Romanorum Imperator". Emperor And Confessor. Feast Day 15 July.


Text from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal,
unless stated otherwise.

Saint Henry.
   Emperor and Confessor.
   Feast Day 15 July.

Semi-Double.

White Vestments.


Coat-of-Arms of The Holy Roman Emperor.
English: Coat-of-Arms of Leopold II and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperors - "Or Shield" variant.
Deutsch: Wappen des Kaisers Leopold II. und Franz II. (HRR), Gold Schild.
Date: 8 January 2014.
Source: 
[With supporters] Otto Posse.
Author: Tom Lemmens (in collaboration with Heralder).
(Wikimedia Commons)


Henry II, surnamed "The Pious", was King of Bavaria in 972 A.D., King of Germany in 1002, and Head of The Holy Roman Empire from 1014 to 1024. He promised on oath to Pope Benedict VIII, who had Crowned him, to be faithful in all things to him and his successors".

He did his best to spread Religion, restoring destroyed Churches, and Founding Monasteries which he liberally endowed (Epistle). Detained at Monte Cassino by severe illness, he was miraculously cured through the intercession of Saint Benedict.

In order to be ready for the coming of The Divine Master (Gospel, Communion), he returned from Italy, through France, was admitted as a Secular Oblate at Cluny and asked to be received into the Benedictine Abbey of Saint Vanne at Verdun, France. The Abbot welcomed him, but immediately commanded him, in the name of Religious Obedience, to re-ascend The Imperial Throne.

He so loved The Law of God (Introit), that he preserved absolute Virginity in marriage (Introit). Indeed, by agreement with his holy spouse, Cunegund, he determined to make Jesus Christ their heir, and, with this view, he Founded The Bishopric of Bamberg, to which he left all his possessions.

He was buried in Bamberg Cathedral in 1024.

Mass: Os justi.


English: Emperor Henry II and Empress Cunigunde's tomb,
by Tilman Riemenschneider, in Bamberg Cathedral, Germany.
Deutsch: Bamberger Dom - Grab Heinrich und Kunigunde.
Photo: May 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: Reinhard Kirchner.
(Wikimedia Commons)


The following Text is from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia.

Henry II (German: Heinrich II; Italian: Enrico II) (6 May 973 A.D. – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of The Ottonian Dynasty of Emperors, as he had no children.


The Duke of Bavaria from 995 A.D., Henry became King of Germany ("Rex Romanorum") following the sudden death of his second cousin, Emperor Otto III, in 1002, was Crowned King of Italy ("Rex Italiae") in 1004, and was crowned by the Pope as Holy Roman Emperor in 1014.

The son of Henry II, Duke of Bavaria and his wife Gisela of Burgundy, Emperor Henry II was a great-grandson of German King Henry I and a member of the Bavarian Branch of The Ottonian Dynasty. Since his father had rebelled against two previous Emperors, the younger Henry was often in exile. This led him to turn to The Church at an early age, first finding refuge with The Bishop of Freising and, later, being educated at The Cathedral School of Hildesheim

He succeeded his father as Duke of Bavaria in 995 A.D., as "Henry IV". As Duke, he attempted to join his second-cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Otto III, in suppressing a revolt against Imperial Rule in Italy in 1002. Before Henry II could arrive, however, Otto III died of fever, leaving no heir. After defeating several other claimants to the Throne, Henry II was Crowned as King of Germany ("Rex Romanorum") on 9 July 1002 and as King of Italy ("Rex Italiae") on 15 May 1004. Henry II, in 1004, aided Jaromír, Duke of Bohemia, against the Poles, definitively incorporating The Duchy of Bohemia into The Holy Roman Empire.



English: Sacramentary of king Henry II [1002-14].
München BSB Clm 4456 Seite 33c: King Henry II.
Polski: Sakramentariusz króla Henryka II [1002-14]: Henryk II Święty.
Chrystus nakłada koronę. Po prawej stronie Emmeram z Ratyzbony i
cesarski miecz, a po lewej i Ulryk z Augsburga i włócznia Świętego Maurycego
Deutsch: Krönung Heinrich II., Christus setzt ihm selbst die Krone auf. Als Zeichen
seiner Macht werden ihm von w:de:Emmeram (rechts) das w:de:Reichsschwert
und Ulrich I. von Augsburg (links) die w:de:Heilige Lanze überreicht
Español: oronación de Enrique II, «Sacramentario de Enrique II»,
1002-1014. Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.
Date: Circa 1002-1014.
Current location: Bavarian State Library.
Source/Photographer: digitale-sammlungen.de
(Wikimedia Commons)


Unlike his predecessor, who had focused upon Imperial attention in Italy, Henry spent most of his reign concerned with Imperial territory North of The Alps. His main focus was on a series of wars against the Polish Duke Bolesław I, who had already conquered a number of Countries surrounding him. Henry did, however, lead three expeditions into Italy to ensure Imperial dominion over the Peninsula; twice to suppress secessionist revolts and once to challenge The Byzantine Empire for dominance over Southern Italy. On 14 February 1014, Pope Benedict VIII Crowned Henry as Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") in Rome.

The Rule of Henry II is seen as a period of centralised authority throughout The Empire. He consolidated his power by cultivating personal and political ties with The Catholic Church. He greatly expanded The Ottonian Dynasty's custom of employing Clergy as counter-weights against Secular Nobles.

Through donations to The Church and the establishment of new Dioceses, Henry strengthened Imperial Rule across The Empire and increased control over Ecclesiastical affairs. He stressed Service to The Church and promoted Monastic reform. For his personal holiness and efforts to support The Church, Blessed Pope Eugene III Canonised him in 1146, making Henry II the only German Monarch to be a Saint.


Henry II crowned as Emperor by Pope Benedict VIII in 1014.
Date: 1400-1410.
Source: Vincent of Beauvais, Le Miroir Historial (Vol. IV).
Author: Unknown.
(Wikimedia Commons)


Henry II married Cunigunde of Luxembourg, who later became his Queen and Empress. As the union produced no children, after Henry's death the German Nobles elected Conrad II, a great-great-grandson of Emperor Otto I, to succeed him. Conrad was the first of The Salian Dynasty of Emperors.

Saint Henry II was Canonised in July 1147 by Blessed Pope Eugenius III; his spouse, Cunigunde, was Canonised on 29 March 1200 by Pope Innocent III. His Relics were carried on campaigns against Heretics in the 1160s. He is The Patron Saint of the City of Basle, Switzerland, and of Saint Henry's Marist Brothers' College, in Durban, South Africa.

Saint Henry's name, which does not appear in The Tridentine Calendar, was inserted in 1631 in The Roman Calendar as a Commemoration within the Celebration of Saint Anacletus on 13 July, the day of his death and the Traditional Day for his Celebration on a local level.



Gospel Book of Henry II.
Artist: Unknown Miniaturist, German (active around 1020).
Current location: Vatican Library.
Source/Photographer: Web Gallery of Art.
(Wikimedia Commons)


In 1668, it was moved to 15 July for Celebration as a Semi-Double. This Rank was changed by Pope Pius XII in 1955 to that of Simple, and by Pope Saint John XXIII in 1960 to that of Third-Class Feast. In 1969, it was returned to its original date of 13 July as an Optional Memorial.

During his lifetime, Henry II became an Oblate of The Benedictine Order, and today is Venerated within The Order as The Patron Saint of all Oblates, along with Saint Frances of Rome.

Henry II was a Member of The Ottonian Dynasty of Kings and Emperors, who Ruled The Holy Roman Empire (previously Germany) from 919 A.D., to 1024. In relation to the other Members of his Dynasty, Henry II was the great-grandson of Henry I, great-nephew of Otto I, first-cousin once removed of Otto II, and a second-cousin to Otto III.

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