Tuesday, 2 September 2014

Amalarius Of Metz.

Italic Text is taken from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

English: Flower garden in city of Thionville, France.
The Synod of Thionville (German: Diedenhofen) was held in 835 A.D.,
and Amalarius replaced Agobard at this Synod.
Lëtzebuergesch: Zu Diddenuewen.
Date: 10 October 2005 (original upload date).
Source: Own work. Transferred from lb.wikipedia
(Wikimedia Commons)

Amalarius of Metz (circa 780 A.D. - 850 A.D.), also known as Amalarius Symphosius or Amalarius Fortunatus, was a Liturgist and a partisan of Louis the Pious throughout his tumultuous reign.

In 831 A.D., Amalarius travelled to Rome to meet Pope Gregory IV and arrange a new Frankish Liturgy. In 835 A.D., he replaced Agobard at the Synod of Diedenhofen (Thionville). During Agobard's exile (circa 834 A.D.) he was responsible for administering the Diocese of Lyon. He implemented Liturgical reforms.

He wrote extensively on the Mass, including the Liber Officialis, and was involved in the great Mediaeval debates regarding Predestination.

We must rely on his enemy, Florus of Lyon, for an account of Amalarius' condemnation on the accusation of Heresy, at Quierzy, 838 A.D., which banned some of his works. Nevertheless, his writings form a good portion of our current documentation of the 9th-Century Liturgies of the Western Church.

While the exact date of his death is not known, it is believed that it happened around 850 A.D. in Metz.

English: Printed Antiphonary (circa 1700).
Open at Vespers of Easter Sunday.
Amalarius of Metz, a great Liturgist, tried to introduce his new Antiphonary
when he governed the Diocese of Lyons, but met with strong
opposition from the Deacon, Florus.
Français: F. Montacier / Antiphonaire de la Charité / Musée de l'Assistance
de Paris / Hôtel de Miramion (Paris, France).
Recueil de chants liturgiques,
18e siècle (env. 1700), parchemin.
Date: 9 September 2006.
Source: Own work.
Author: ignis.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The following Text is taken from THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA
(dated 1907).

A Liturgical writer, born at Metz, in the last quarter of the 8th-Century; died about 850 A.D. He was formerly considered a different personage from Amalarius of Trèves (Trier), but, of late, owing to the researches of Dom Morin, the opinion seems to prevail that, about 811 A.D., Amalarius of Metz became Bishop of Trèves, which Diocese he relinquished after two years to act as Envoy to Constantinople. Hence, he is regarded as author of the works once attributed to Amalarius of Trèves.

He was for some time a disciple of Alcuin. After returning to France from Constantinople, he would appear to have assisted at important Synods at Aix-la-Chapelle and Paris. Later, he was sent by Louis le Débonnaire as Ambassador to Pope Gregory IV, at Rome, this being probably his second visit to the Eternal City. Later, he governed the Diocese of Lyons during the exile of Agobard, and there tried to introduce his new Antiphonary, but met with strong opposition from the Deacon, Florus.

When Agobard was restored to his See, both he and Florus attacked the writings of Amalarius and succeeded in having him censured at a Synod, held at Kiersy in 838 A.D., for his opinion concerning the signification of the parts of the divided Hostat Mass. Finally, Amalarius was involved in the Theological controversies on Predestination, raised by Gottschalk.

The date of his death has not been determined with certainty, but it must have been shortly after the year 850 A.D. The works of Amalarius treat chiefly of Liturgical subjects. His most important, and also his long treatises, are entitled "De ecclesiasticis officiis" and "De ordine antiphonarii." The former is divided into four books, in which, without observing a strict, logical order, he treats of the Mass, the Office, different Benedictions, Ordinations, Vestments, etc., giving an explanation of the various Formularies and Ceremonies, rather than a scientific exposition of the Liturgy.

The first book explains the Liturgical Seasons and Feasts, from Septuagesima to Pentecost, and especially the Ceremonies of Holy Week. The second book treats of the times for conferring Holy Orders, of the different Orders in the Church and of the Liturgical Vestments. The third book contains a few Preliminary Chapters on Bells, the Choir, etc., a Treatise on the different parts of the Mass, Celebrated Pontifically, according to the Roman Rite, and some Chapters on special subjects, e.g. Advent, the Mass for the Dead, etc.

The fourth book deals principally with The Divine Office, explaining its integral parts and the Offices peculiar to certain Liturgical Seasons or Feast Days, but it contains a few supplementary Chapters on Obsequies for the Dead and subjects already treated.

In the "De ordine antiphonarii", he explains the arrangement of The Divine Office and the variations for the different Feasts, and considers, in particular, the origin and meaning of the Antiphons and Responses; indeed, in this world, he would seem a commentator on his own Antiphonary compiled from the Antiphonaries of Rome and Metz, and a defender of his method of composition.

His "Eclogae de officio missae" contains a description of the Pontifical Mass, according to the Roman Rite, and a mystical explanation of the different parts of the Mass. Several letters of Amalarius, dealing with Liturgical subjects, have also been preserved. Dom Morin denies the authenticity of the Letter of Amalarius in response to certain questions of Charlemagne concerning Baptism, as well as the "Forma institutionis canonicorum et sanctimonialium," which is a collection of rules taken from the Decrees of Councils and works of the Fathers, for Clerics and Nuns living in Community. Unfortunately, his Antiphonary, and also his "Embolis", have not been preserved.

Amalarius seems to have had a strong liking for Liturgical studies, a liking which was stimulated and fostered by his master, Alcuin. His travels to the East gave him considerable information concerning the Oriental Rites, but his stay in Rome appears to have imbued him with a deep love for the Roman Liturgy and to have greatly influenced his Liturgical work. There, he made a special study of Rubrics and Roman customs; he inquired diligently of Theodore, the Arch-Priest of the Basilica of Saint Peter, concerning the Formularies and Ceremonies in use in Rome, and even sought to obtain copies of the Liturgical books to bring to France.

Living at this time when the Liturgy was changing, when the fusion of the Roman and Gallican uses was taking place, he exercised a remarkable influence in introducing the present composite Liturgy, which has finally supplanted the ancient Roman Rite. He sought to carry out the desire of the Emperor to introduce the Roman Liturgy in order to obtain uniformity, but, at the same time, like Alcuin and other Liturgists of his age, he combined with the Roman Rite whatever he deemed worth preserving in the Gallican Rite, as may be easily seen in his commentary on his own Antiphonary.

The chief merit of his works consists of the fact that they have preserved much accurate and valuable information on the state of the Liturgy at the beginning of the 9th-Century, so that a comparison may easily be made between it and the present Liturgy, to determine what changes have occurred and to trace the development that has taken place.

The most serious defect in his writings is an excessive mysticism, which led him to seek far-fetched, and even absurd, symbolical origins and meanings for Liturgical Formulas and Ceremonies, but the fault may be in a measure excused, since it was common to all Liturgical writers of that time. He may also have used more liberty in composing, changing, and transposing Liturgical Texts than Ecclesiastical authority in later ages would permit, when the necessity of unity in the Liturgy was more imperatively felt. In spite of these faults, he exercised great influence on the development of the present Roman Liturgy, and his works are very useful for the study of the history of the Latin Liturgies.

Monday, 1 September 2014

Fountains Abbey (Part Four).

Text and Illustrations from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

Fountains Abbey,
Yorkshire, England.
Photo: 28 June 2014.
Source: Own work.
Author: Diliff.
Attribution: Photo by DAVID ILIFF.
License: CC-BY-SA 3.0
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Battle of Bannockburn, in 1314, was a factor that led to a downturn in the prosperity of the Abbey in the Early-14th-Century. Areas of the North of England, as far South as York, were looted by the Scots. Then the number of Lay-Brothers, being recruited to the Order, reduced considerably. The Abbey chose to take advantage of the relaxation of the Edict on leasing property, that had been enacted by the General Chapter of the Order in 1208, and leased some of their properties. Other properties were staffed by hired labour and remained in hand under the supervision of bailiffs. In 1535, just before the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Fountains Abbey had an interest in 138 "Vills" [Editor: See Note, which follows] and the total taxable income of the Fountains Abbey Estate was £1,115, making it the richest Cistercian Monastery in England.

[Editor: Note: "Vill" is a term used in English history to describe a land unit which might otherwise be described as a Parish, Manor or Tithing.

The term is used in the period immediately after the Norman Conquest and into the Late-Mediaeval period. Land units in the Domesday Book are frequently referred to as "Vills". The "Vill" is a geographical sub-division of the Hundred, and County.

Traditionally, amongst legal historians, a "Vill" referred to the tract of land of a rural community, whereas 'Township' was referred to when the tax and legal administration of a rural community was meant. An unfree inhabitant of a "Vill" was called a Villein. The word would later develop into Ville (French) and Village (English)].

The Abbey buildings, and over 500 acres (200 hectares) of land were sold by the Crown, on 1 October 1540, to Sir Richard Gresham, the London merchant, father of the founder of the Royal Exchange, Sir Thomas Gresham. Gresham sold some of the fabric of the site, stone, timber, lead, as building materials to help to defray the cost of purchase. The site was acquired in 1597 by Sir Stephen Proctor, who used stone from the Monastic complex to build Fountains Hall.

English: Cluny Abbey, France, where Thurstan (later, Archbishop of York and Founder of Fountains Abbey) visited and vowed to become a Monk at some point in his life.
Français: Clocher de l'eau bénite et clocher de l'horloge de l'abbaye de Cluny.
Photo: 16 July 2005.
Source: Own work.
Author: TL.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Thurstan, or Turstin, of Bayeux (circa 1070 – 6 February 1140) was a Mediaeval Archbishop of York. He served Kings William II and Henry I, of England, before his election to the See of York, in 1114. Once elected, his Consecration was delayed for five years, while he fought attempts by the Archbishop of Canterbury to assert primacy over York. Eventually, he was Consecrated by the Pope, instead, and allowed to return to England. While Archbishop, he secured two new Suffragan Bishops for his Province.

When Henry I died, Thurstan supported Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois as King. Thurstan also defended the Northern part of England from invasion by the Scots, taking a leading part in organising the English forces at the Battle of the Standard (1138). Shortly before his death, Thurstan resigned from his See and took the Habit of a Cluniac Monk.

Between 1627 and 1767, the Estate was owned by the Messenger family, who sold it to William Aislaby, who was responsible for combining it with the Studley Royal Estate. The archaeological excavation of the site was begun under the supervision of John Richard Walbran, a Ripon antiquary, who, in 1846, had published a Paper "On the Necessity of Clearing Out the Conventual Church of Fountains.

In 1966, the Abbey was placed in the guardianship of the Department of the Environment, and the Estate was purchased by the West Riding County Council, who transferred ownership to the North Yorkshire County Council in 1974. The National Trust bought the 674-acre (273 hectares) Fountains Abbey and Studley Royal Estate, from North Yorkshire County Council, in 1983.

In 1986, the parkland, in which the Abbey is situated, and the Abbey, was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It was recognised for fulfilling the criteria of being a masterpiece of human creative genius, and an outstanding example of a type of building, or architectural or technological ensemble or landscape, which illustrates significant stages in human history.

English: Cîteaux Abbey, France.
Mother House of the Cistercian Order.
Français: L'abbaye de Cîteaux la bibliothèque du XVIe siècle.
Classée monument historique. Restaurée.
Photo: 14 July 2008.
Source: Own work.
Author: G CHP.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Cîteaux Abbey (French: Abbaye de Cîteaux) is a Roman Catholic Abbey, located in Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, South of Dijon, France. Today, it belongs to the Trappists, or Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO). The Cistercian Order takes its name from this Mother House of Cîteaux (previously named "Cisteaux"), near Nuits-Saint-Georges. The Abbey has about 35 Monks.

Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, a Monk of Cîteaux Abbey, left it to found Clairvaux Abbey in 1115, of which he was the first Abbot. His influence in the Cistercian Order, and beyond, is of prime importance. He re-affirmed the importance of strict observance to the Rule of Saint Benedict.

Cîteaux Abbey, begun around 1140, was completed in 1193.
The Dukes of Burgundy subsequently used as their dynastic place of burial.

Fountains Abbey is owned by the National Trust and maintained by English Heritage. The Trust owns Studley Royal Park, Fountains Hall, to which there is partial public access, and Saint Mary's Church, designed by William Burges and built around 1873, all of which are significant features of the World Heritage Site.

The Porter's Lodge, which was once the Gatehouse to the Abbey, houses a modern exhibition area with displays about the history of Fountains Abbey and how the Monks lived.

In January 2010, Fountains Abbey and Studley Royal became two of the first National Trust properties to be included in Google Street View, using the Google Trike.

Fountains Abbey was used as a filming location, by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, for their single, Maid of Orleans (The Waltz Joan of Arc), during the cold Winter of December 1981. In 1980, Hollywood also came to the site to film the final scenes to the film Omen III: The Final Conflict. Other productions, filmed on location at the Abbey, are the films The Secret Garden, The History Boys, the TV series "Flambards", A History of Britain, Terry Jones' Medieval Lives, Cathedral and the Game Show"Treasure Hunt".


Sunday, 31 August 2014

Fountains Abbey (Part Three).

Text and Illustrations from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

Fountains Abbey,
Yorkshire, England.
Photo: 28 June 2014.
Source: Own work.
Author: Diliff.
Attribution: Photo by DAVID ILIFF.
License: CC-BY-SA 3.0
(Wikimedia Commons)

When Marmaduke Huby died, he was succeeded by William Thirsk, who was accused by the Royal Commissioners of immorality and inadequacy, and dismissed from the Abbacy and replaced by Marmaduke Bradley, a Monk of the Abbey who had reported Thirsk's supposed offences, testified against him and offered the authorities 600 Marks for the Abbacy. In 1539, Bradley surrendered the Abbey, when Henry VIII ordered the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

The Abbey precinct covered seventy acres (twenty-eight hectares), surrounded by an eleven foot (3.4 m) wall, built in the 13th-Century, some parts of which are visible to the South and West of the Abbey. The area consists of three concentric zones, cut by the River Skell flowing from West to East across the site. The Church and Claustral (Cloistered) buildings stand at the centre of the precinct, The early Abbey buildings were added to, and altered, over time, causing deviations from the strict Cistercian type. Outside the walls, were the Abbey's Granges [Editor: Estates used for food production].

The original Abbey Church was built of wood and "was probably" two-storeys high; it was, however, quickly replaced in stone. The Church was damaged in the attack on the Abbey, in 1146, and was rebuilt, on a larger scale, on the same site. Building work was completed circa 1170. This structure was 300-foot (91 m) long, and had eleven Bays in the Side Aisles. A Lantern Tower was added at The Crossing of the Church in the Late-12th-Century.

Fountains Abbey,
Yorkshire, England.
Photo: 3 August 2004.
Source: Own work.
Author: Johnteslade.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Presbytery, at the Eastern End of the Church, was much altered in the 13th-Century. The Church's greatly-lengthened Choir, commenced by Abbot John of York, 1203–1211, and carried on by his successor, terminates, like that of Durham Cathedral, in an Eastern Transept, the work of Abbot John of Kent, 1220–1247. The 160-foot (49 m) Tower, which was added not long before the Dissolution of the Monasteries, by Abbot Huby, 1494–1526, is in an unusual position at the Northern End of the North Transept and bears Huby's Motto 'Soli Deo Honor et Gloria' (Honour and Glory to God alone). The Sacristry adjoined the South Transept.

The Cloister, which had Arcading of Black Marble from Nidderdale, and White Sandstone, is in the centre of the precinct and to the South of the Church. The Three-Aisled Chapter-House and Parlour open from the Eastern Walk of the Cloister and the Refectory, with the Kitchen and Buttery, attached, are at Right Angles to its Southern Walk.

Parallel with the Western Walk, is an immense Vaulted sub-structure, serving as Cellars and Store-Rooms, which supported the Dormitory of the Conversi (Lay Brothers), above. This building extended across the River and, at its South-West Corner, were the Latrines, built above the swiftly-flowing stream. The Monks' Dormitory was in its usual position, above the Chapter-House, to the South of the Transept. Peculiarities of this arrangement include the position of the Kitchen, between the Refectory and Calefactory (Warming-House), and of the Infirmary, above the River to the West, adjoining the Guest-Houses.

Fountains Abbey,
Yorkshire, England.
Photo: August 2006.
Source: English wikipedia
Author: LordHarris on English Wikipedia
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Abbot's House, one of the largest in all of England, is located to the East of the Latrines, where portions of it are suspended on Arches over the River Skell. It was built in the Mid-12th-Century as a modest single-storey structure, then, from the 14th-Century, underwent extensive expansion and re-modelling, to end up, in the 16th-Century, as a grand dwelling with fine Bay Windows and grand Fireplaces. The Great Hall was an expansive room 52 metres by 21 metres (171 ft by 69 ft). Among other Apartments, was a Domestic Oratory or Chapel.

Mediaeval Monasteries were sustained by Landed Estates, that were given to them as Endowments and, from which, they derived an income from rents. They were the gifts of the Founder and subsequent Patrons, but some were purchased from cash revenues. At the outset, the Cistercian Order rejected gifts of Mills and Rents, Churches with Tithes and Feudal Manors, as they did not accord with their belief in Monastic purity, because they involved contact with Laymen.

When Archbishop Thurstan founded the Abbey, in 1132, he gave the Community 260 acres (110 hectares) of land, at Sutton, North of the Abbey, and 200 acres (eighty-one hectares) at Herleshowe, to provide support while the Abbey became established. In the early years, the Abbey struggled to maintain itself, because further gifts were not forthcoming, and Archbishop Thurstan could not help further because the lands he administered were not his own, but part of the Diocesan Estate. After a few years of impoverished struggle to establish the Abbey, the Monks were joined by Hugh, a former Dean of York Minster, a rich man who brought a considerable fortune, as well as furniture and books to start the Library.

Braine le Chateau, Belgium.
The Cistercians made extensive use of water-wheel technology, primarily for milling grain.
Français: Moulin banal in Braine-le-Château, Belgium. Dating from XII century.
Walon: Molén banåve do 12inme sieke, a Brinne-Tchestea.
This File: 14 November 2004.
Source: Own work.
Author: Pierre79.
(Wikimedia Commons)

By 1135, the Monks had acquired only another 260 acres (110 hectares) at Cayton, given by Eustace FitzJohn, of Knaresborough, "for the building of the Abbey". Shortly after the fire of 1146, the Monks had established Granges, at Sutton, Cayton, Cowton Moor, Warsill, Dacre and Aldburgh, all within six miles of Fountains Abbey. In the 1140s, the Water Mill was built on the Abbey site, making it possible for the grain from the Granges to be brought to the Abbey for milling. Tannery waste, from this era, has been excavated on the site.

Further Estates were assembled in two phases, between 1140 and 1160, then 1174 and 1175, from piecemeal acquisitions of land. Some of the lands were grants from benefactors, but others were purchased from gifts of money to the Abbey. Roger de Mowbray granted vast areas of Nidderdale, and William de Percy and his tenants granted substantial Estates in Craven, which included Malham Moor and the Fishery, in Malham Tarn.

After 1203, the Abbots consolidated the Abbey's lands by renting out more distant areas that the Monks could not easily farm, themselves, and exchanging and purchasing lands that complemented their existing Estates. Fountains Abbey's holdings, both in Yorkshire and beyond, had reached their maximum extent by 1265, when they were an efficient and very profitable Estate. Their Estates were linked in a network of individual Granges, which provided staging posts to the most distant ones. They had urban properties in York, Yarm, Grimsby,Scarborough and Boston, from which to conduct export and market trading and their other commercial interests included mining, quarrying, iron-smelting, fishing and milling.

Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire, England.
The Monks' Cellarium (where food was stored).
Photo: 2005.
Source: Own work.
Author: Charlesdrakew.
(Wikimedia Commons)


Saturday, 30 August 2014

Fountains Abbey (Part Two).

Text and Illustrations from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

Fountains Abbey,
Yorkshire, England.
Photo: 28 June 2014.
Source: Own work.
Author: Diliff.
Attribution: Photo by DAVID ILIFF.
License: CC-BY-SA 3.0
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: The roofless ruins of Arnsburg Abbey, Germany.
Deutsch: Ruine der Klosterkirche Arnsburg bei Lich, Hessen, Germany.
Photo: 13 May 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: Presse03.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Arnsburg Abbey (Kloster Arnsburg) is a former Cistercian Monastery in the Wetterau,
Hesse, Germany. It was founded from Eberbach Abbey in 1174. Secularised in 1803,
and abandoned by its Monks in 1810, its secular buildings were given to the
Counts Solms-Laubach, who adapted them as their Seat. The Abbey Church stands
as a ruin near Lich, Hesse; since 1960, it has been the site of a War Memorial.

After Henry Murdac was elected to the Abbacy, in 1143, the small stone Church and timber Claustral (Cloistered) buildings were replaced. Within three years, an Aisled Nave had been added to the stone Church, and the first permanent Claustral buildings, built in stone and roofed in tile, had been completed.

In 1146, an angry mob, displeased with Abbot Murdac's rôle in opposing the election of William FitzHerbert to the Archbishopric of York, attacked the Abbey and burnt down all but the Church and some surrounding buildings. The Community recovered swiftly from the attack and founded four Daughter Houses.

Henry Murdac resigned the Abbacy, in 1147, to become Archbishop of York, and was replaced, first by Maurice, Abbot of Rievaulx, then, on the resignation of Maurice, by Thorald. Thorald was forced by Henry Murdac to resign after two years in Office. The next Abbot, Richard, held the Post until his death in 1170 and restored the Abbey's stability and prosperity. In twnty years as Abbot, he supervised a huge building programme, which involved completing repairs to the damaged Church and building more accommodation for the increasing number of recruits. Only the Chapter House was completed before he died and the work was ably continued by his successor, Robert of Pipewell, under whose Rule the Abbey gained a reputation for caring for the needy.

The Nave,
Fountains Abbey,
Yorkshire, England,
(compare with photo of Arnsburg Abbey, Germany, above).
Date: 5 September 2006 (original upload date).
Source: Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here.
Transfer was stated to be made by User:Jalo.
Author: Original uploader was LordHarris at en.wikipedia
(Wikimedia Commons)

The next Abbot was William, who presided over the Abbey from 1180 to 1190, and was succeeded by Ralph Haget, who had entered Fountains Abbey at the age of thirty, as a Novice, after pursuing a Military career. During the European famine, of 1194, Haget ordered the construction of shelters, in the vicinity of the Abbey, and provided daily food rations to the poor, enhancing the Abbey's reputation for caring for the poor and attracting more grants from wealthy benefactors.

In the first half of the 13th-Century, Fountains Abbey increased in reputation and prosperity under the next three Abbots: John of York (1203 – 1211); John of Hessle (1211 – 1220); John of Kent (1220 – 1247). They were burdened with an inordinate amount of administrative duties and increasing demands for money in taxation and levies, but managed to complete another massive expansion of the Abbey's buildings. This included enlarging the Church and building an Infirmary.

In the second half of the 13th-Century, the Abbey was in more straitened circumstances. It was presided over by eleven Abbots, and became financially unstable, largely due to forward selling its wool crop, and the Abbey was criticised for its dire material and physical state, when it was visited by Archbishop John Romeyn in 1294. The run of disasters that befell the Community continued into the Early-14th-Century, when Northern England was invaded by the Scots and there were further demands for taxes. The culmination of these misfortunes was the Black Death of 1349. The loss of manpower and income, due to the ravages of the Plague, was almost ruinous.

Deutsch: Westansicht der Ruine von Fountains Abbey, North Yorkshire, England.
Blickrichtung Ost links und Süd rechts.
Eigenes Panoramabild, zusammengesetzt aus mehreren eigenen
Digitalbildern, aufgenommen 27. August 2005.
Das originale Bild
Image:Fountains Abbey view 2005-08-27.jpg geht noch weiter nach rechts.
English: Fountains Abbey ruins seen from West, looking East and South. This Abbey in North Yorkshire, England, is a ruined Cistercian Monastery, founded in 1132 and operating until 1539.
Panoramic image, stitched from own digital photos taken 2005-08-27.
The original photo Image:Fountains Abbey view 2005-08-27.jpg extended further right,
this has been cropped.
Français: Les ruines de l'Abbaye de Fountains vues de l'ouest, en regardant vers l'est et le sud. Cette abbaye située au nord du Yorksire, en Angleterre, a été fondée en 1132 et fut utilisée jusqu'en 1539.
Image panoramique issue de l'assemblage de photos originales prises le 27 aout 2005.
Photo: 27 August 2005.
Source: Own work.
Author: Klaus with K.
(Wikimedia Commons)

A further complication arose as a result of the Papal Schism of 1378–1409. Fountains Abbey, along with other English Cistercian Houses, was told to break off any contact with the Mother House of Citeaux, France, which supported a rival Pope. This resulted in the Abbots forming their own Chapter to rule the Order in England and, consequently, they became increasingly involved in internecine politics.

In 1410, following the death of Abbott Burley of Fountains, the Community was riven by several years of turmoil over the election of his successor. Contending candidates John Ripon, Abbot of Meaux, and Roger Frank, a Monk of Fountains, were locked in discord, until 1415, when Ripon was finally appointed and presided until his death in 1434.

Under Abbots John Greenwell (1442–1471), Thomas Swinton (1471–8), John Darnton (1478–95), who undertook some much needed restoration of the fabric of the Abbey, including notable work on the Church, and Marmaduke Huby (1495–1526), Fountains regained stability and prosperity.

Fountains Abbey,
Yorkshire, England,
seen from the South-West.
Photo: 27 August 2005.
Source: Own work.
Author: Klaus with K.
(Wikimedia Commons)


Saint Rose Of Lima. Feast Day 30 August.

Text from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal,
unless otherwise stated.

Saint Rose of Lima.
Feast Day 30 August.


White Vestments.

English: Saint Rose of Lima.
This picture is companion of Saint Domingo de Guzman. In the book at her feet,
the Text reads: "Rosa Cordis Mei Tu Mihi Sponsa Esto Ancilla Tua Sum Domine".
"The rose of my heart, be thou my bride, your servant, I, O Lord."
Español: Óleo sobre lienzo, Claudio Coello (1642-1693):
Santa Rosa de Lima (1684-1685).
Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Artist: Claudio Coello (1642–1693).
Current location: Prado MuseumMadrid, Spain.
This File: 26 March 2006.
User: Seges.
(Wikimedia Commons)

One hundred years after the discovery of The New World, was born at Lima, the capital of Peru, the Virgin, Rose, the First Flower of Sanctity which bloomed in South America. The name was given to her because, one day, the face of the child appeared transfigured and with all the beauty of a rose. She added to it the name of The Blessed Virgin Mary, wishing, thenceforth, to be called "Rose of Saint Mary".

Watered by the Divine Dew of Grace, she produced beautiful blooms of Virginity and Patience (Collect). When five years old, she made her Vow of Perpetual Virginity, taking Jesus for her Spouse (Epistle). Later, to avoid being obliged to marry, she cut off her beautiful hair.

Having received the Habit of a Tertiary of The Order of Saint Dominic, she gave herself up to Prayer and austere mortification. When she was thirty, on 29 August 1617, her Divine Spouse came to take her (Gospel, Communion), and, adorned with her radiant beauty, she entered triumphant into the Court of the Heavenly King (Gradual, Alleluia).

Mass: Dilexisti.

Commemoration: Saint Felix and Saint Adauctus. Martyrs.

Saint Rose of Lima,
before The Madonna.
Artist: José Claudio Antolinez (1635–1675).
Date: Late-17th-Century.
Current location: Museum of Fine Arts,
Budapest, Hungary.
Source/Photographer: Web Gallery of Art:
(Wikimedia Commons)

The following Text is from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia.

Saint Rose of Lima (1586 – 1617), T.O.S.D. [The Third Order of Saint Dominic (known as Lay Fraternities of Saint Dominic, or, Lay Dominicans, since 1972) is a Roman Catholic Third Order, affiliated with the Dominican Order] was a Spanish colonist in Lima, Peru, who became known for both her life of severe asceticism and her care of the needy of the City, through her own private efforts. A Lay Member of the Dominican Order, she was the first person, born in the Americas, to be Canonised by the Catholic Church.

As a Saint, Rose of Lima is designated as a Co-Patroness of the Philippines, along with Saint Pudentiana, who were both moved as Second-Class Patronage, in September 1942, by Pope Pius XII, but remains the Primary Patroness of Peru and the indigenous natives of Latin America.

Saint Rose of Lima Church,
Brooklyn, United States of America.
Photo: 28 March 2013.
Source: Own work.
Author: Jim.henderson.
(Wikimedia Commons)

She was born Isabel Flores y de Oliva, in the City of Lima, then in the Vice-Royalty of Peru, on 20 April 1586. She was one of the many children of Gaspar Flores, a Harquebusier (Cavalryman) in the Imperial Spanish Army, born in San Germán on the island of San Juan Bautista (now Puerto Rico), and his wife, María de Oliva, a native of Lima. Her later nickname, "Rose", comes from an incident in her babyhood: A servant claimed to have seen her face transform into a rose. In 1597, she was Confirmed by the Archbishop of Lima, Turibius de Mongrovejo, who was also to be declared a Saint. She formally took the name of "Rose", at that time.

As a young girl — in emulation of the noted Dominican Tertiary, Saint Catherine of Siena — she began to Fast three times a week and performed severe penances, in secret. When she was admired for her beauty, Rose cut off her hair and smeared pepper on her face, upset that suitors were beginning to take notice of her. She rejected all suitors, against the objections of her friends and her family. Despite the censure of her parents, she spent many hours contemplating The Blessed Sacrament, which she received daily, an extremely rare practice at that time. She was determined to take a Vow of Virginity, which was opposed by her parents, who wished her to marry.

English: Peruvian Bank-Note depicting Saint Rose of Lima.
Español: Billete de 200 nuevos soles.
Photo: 24 March 1995.
Source: Own work.
Author: Asdqwdwqd1.
(Wikimedia Commons)

After daily Fasting, she took to permanently abstaining from eating meat. She helped the sick and hungry around her community, bringing them to her room and taking care of them. Rose sold her fine needlework, and took flowers that she grew to market, to help her family. She made and sold lace and embroidery to care for the poor, and she Prayed and did Penance in a little Grotto, which she had built. Otherwise, she became a Recluse, leaving her room only for her visits to Church.

She attracted the attention of the Friars of The Dominican Order. She wanted to become a Nun, but her father forbade it, so she instead entered The Third Order of Saint Dominic, while living in her parents' home. In her twentieth year, she donned the Habit of a Tertiary and took a Vow of Perpetual Virginity. She donned a heavy crown, made of silver, with small spikes on the inside, in emulation of the Crown of Thorns worn by Christ.

For eleven years, she lived this way, with intervals of ecstasy, and died on 24 August 1617, at the age of thirty-one. It is said that she prophesied the date of her death. Her funeral was held in the Cathedral, attended by all the public authorities of Lima, and with a eulogy by the Archbishop.

Saint Rose of Lima Church,
Newark, New Jersey,
United States of America.
Photo: 30 May 2009.
Source: Own work.
Author: Jim.henderson.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Rose was Beatified by Pope Clement IX, on 10 May 1667, and Canonised, on 12 April 1671, by Pope Clement X, the first Catholic in the Americas to be declared a Saint. Her Shrine, alongside those of her friends, Saint Martin de Porres and Saint John Macías, is located inside the Convent of Saint Dominic, in Lima, Peru. The Roman Catholic Church says that many Miracles followed her death; there were stories that she had cured a leper. Many places in the New World are named Santa Rosa, after her. Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI is especially devoted to her.

"The Life of Santa Rosa" was written by many, including: The Dominican, Father Hansen, "Vita Sanctae Rosae" (2 vols., Rome, 1664–1668), and Vicente Orsini, afterward. Pope Benedict XIII, wrote "Concentus Dominicano, Bononiensis ecclesia, in album Sanctorum Ludovici Bertrandi et Rosae de Sancta Maria, ordinero praedicatorum" (Venice, 1674).

English: Saint Rose of Lima Church,
Sittard, Netherlands.
Nederlands: Rosakapel te Sittard (Limburg).
Photo: 7 August 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: Gouwenaar.
(Wikimedia Commons)

In the Caribbean twin-island State of Trinidad and Tobago, the Santa Rosa Carib Community, located in Arima, is the largest organisation of indigenous peoples on the island. The second oldest Parish in the Diocese of Port-of-Spain is also named after this Saint. The Santa Rosa Church, which is located in the town of Arima, was established on 20 April 1786, as the Indian Mission of Santa Rosa de Arima, on the Foundations of a Capuchin Mission, previously established in 1749.

Saint Rose is the Patroness of The Americas, indigenous people of The Americas, especially of Lima, Peru; the Secondary Patroness of The Philippines, along with Saint Pudentiana; of gardeners; of florists; of Sittard, the Netherlands; of India. Maywood, California is known as the largest Parish dedicated to Santa Rosa. On the last weekend in August, the Fiesta de Santa Rosa is celebrated in Dixon, New Mexico.

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Thursday, 28 August 2014

Fountains Abbey (Part One).

Text and Illustrations from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

Fountains Abbey,
Yorkshire, England.
Photo: 28 June 2014.
Source: Own work.
Author: Diliff.
Attribution: Photo by DAVID ILIFF.
License: CC-BY-SA 3.0
(Wikimedia Commons)

Fountains Abbey is one of the largest and best preserved ruined Cistercian Monasteries in England. It is located approximately three miles South-West of RiponNorth Yorkshire, near to the village of Aldfield. Founded in 1132, the Abbey operated for over 400 years, until 1539, when Henry VIII ordered the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

The Abbey is a Grade I Listed Building, owned by the National Trust and part of the designated Studley Royal Park, including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey, UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Rievaulx Abbey, 
Yorkshire, England.
Rievaulx Abbey was the first Cistercian Abbey in Northern England
and is very close to Fountains Abbey.
The second Cistercian Abbey in Northern England was Fountains Abbey.
Photo: 31 August 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: Rob Bendall (Highfields).
(Wikimedia Commons)

After a dispute and riot in, 1132, at the Benedictine House of Saint Mary's Abbey, in York, thirteen Monks were expelled (among them Saint Robert of Newminster) and, after unsuccessfully attempting to return to the Early-6th-Century Rule of Saint Benedict, were taken into the protection of ThurstanArchbishop of York.

He provided them with land in the Valley of the River Skell, a tributary of the River Ure. The enclosed Valley had all the natural features needed for the creation of a Monastery, providing shelter from the weather, stone and timber for building, and a supply of running water. After enduring a harsh Winter in 1133, the Monks applied to join the Cistercian Order and, in 1135, became the second House of that Order in Northern England, after Rievaulx Abbey. The monks subjected themselves to Clairvaux Abbey, in Burgundy, France, which was under the rule of Saint Bernard. Under the guidance of Geoffrey of Ainai, a Monk sent from Clairvaux, the group learned how to celebrate the seven Canonical Hours and were shown how to construct wooden buildings in accordance with Cistercian practice.

English: Acey Abbey,
Jura, France.
Français: Abbaye d'Acey,
Jura, France.
Photo: 7 March 2008.
Source: Own work.
Author: Arnaud 25.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The "architecture of light", 
of Acey Abbey, France,
represents the pure style of Cistercian architecture,
intended for the utilitarian purposes of Liturgical Celebration.

Cistercian architecture is a style of architecture associated with the Churches, Monasteries and Abbeys of the Roman Catholic Cistercian Order. The Cistercian Order was headed by Abbot Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (+1154), who believed that Churches should avoid superfluous ornamentation, so as not to distract from the Religious Life.

Cistercian architecture was simple and utilitarian, and though images of Religious Subjects were allowed in very limited instances (such as the Crucifix), many of the more elaborate figures, that commonly adorned Mediaeval Churches, were not; their capacity for distracting Monks was criticised in a famous Letter by Saint Bernard. Early Cistercian architecture shows a transition between Romanesque and Gothic architecture. Later Abbeys were also constructed in Renaissance and Baroque Styles, though, by then, simplicity is rather less evident.

In terms of construction, buildings were made, where possible, of smooth, pale, stone. Columns, Pillars and Windows fell at the same base level, and, if plastering was done at all, it was kept extremely simple. The Sanctuary kept a simple style of proportion of 1:2 at both Elevation and Floor Levels. To maintain the appearance of Ecclesiastical Buildings, Cistercian sites were constructed in a pure, rational style and may be counted among the most beautiful relics of the Middle Ages.

Most Cistercian Abbeys and Churches were built in remote Valleys, far from Cities and populated areas, and this isolation and need for self-sustainability bred an innovativeness among the Cistercians. Many Cistercian establishments display early examples of hydraulic engineering and waterwheels. After stone, the two most important building materials were wood and metal. The Cistercians were careful in the management and conservation of their forests; they were also skilled metallurgists, and their skill with metal has been associated directly with the development of Cistercian architecture, and the spread of Gothic architecture as a whole.

English: Cistercian architecture was applied, based on rational principles.
Deutsch: Aufriss des Langhauses der Zirsterzienser-Klosterkirche
von Kloster Arnsburg.
Date: 1888.
Source: Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, aus: Dehio/v.Bezold: Die kirchliche
Baukunst des Abendlandes, Stuttgart, Atlas II, 1888, Tafel 199,4.
Author: Unknown.
(Wikimedia Commons)


Wednesday, 27 August 2014

Saint Anastasia.

Text and Illustrations from Wikipedia - the free encyclopaedia,
unless otherwise stated.

English: San Anastasia Cathedral, Verona, Italy.

Français: Cathédrale Saint Anastase, Vérone, Italie.
Date: 2004.
Source: Own work.
Author: © 2004 David Monniaux.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Saint Anastasia is a Christian Saint and Martyr, who died at Sirmium in the Roman province of Pannonia Secunda (modern-day Serbia). In the Orthodox Church, she is venerated as Saint Anastasia the Pharmakolytria, i.e. "Deliverer from Potions" (Ἁγία Ἀναστασία ἡ Φαρμακολύτρια).

Concerning Anastasia, little is reliably known, save that she died in the persecutions of Diocletian. Most stories about her date from several Centuries after her death and make her, variously, a Roman, or Sirmian, native, and a Roman citizen of Patrician rank. One legend makes her the daughter of a certain Praetextus and the pupil of Saint ChrysogonusCatholic tradition states that her mother was Saint Fausta of Sirmium.

Anastasia has long been Venerated as a healer and exorcist. Her Relics lie in the Cathedral of Saint Anastasia, in Zadar,Croatia.

She is one of seven women, who, along with The Blessed Virgin Mary, are commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass.

EnglishModern Orthodox Christian icon of Saint Anastasia the Great-Martyr.

Русский: Святая Анастасия (Анастасия Узорешительница, Анастасия Младшая) —
Святая, христианская великомученица IV века (икона).
Source: http://www.svetigora.com/node/892
Author: Unknown.
(Wikimedia Commons)

This Martyr enjoys the distinction, unique in the Roman Liturgy, of having a special Commemoration in the second Mass on Christmas Day. The day's Mass was originally Celebrated, not in honour of the Birth of Christ, but rather in Commemoration of this Martyr, and, towards the end of the 5th-Century, her name was also inserted in the Roman Canon.

Nevertheless, she is not a Roman Saint, for she suffered Martyrdom at Sirmium, and was not Venerated at Rome until almost the end of the 5th-Century. It is true that a later legend, not earlier than the 6th-Century, makes Anastasia a Roman, though, even in this legend, she did not suffer Martyrdom at Rome. The same legend connects her name with that of Saint Chrysogonus, likewise not a Roman Martyr, but put to death in Aquileia, though the San Crisogono Church in Rome is dedicated to him.

English: The Anastasia Chapel of Benediktbeuern Abbey in Bavaria, Germany.
The Anastasia Chapel is a Baroque Chapel of Benediktbeuern Abbey.
It was built between 1751 and 1753 in honour of the Martyr, Anastasia the Patrician.
Deutsch: Die Anastasiakapelle des Klosters Benediktbeuern in Bayern, Deutschland.
Die Anastasiakapelle ist eine Barockkapelle des Klosters Benediktbeuern in Benediktbeuern,
die von 1751 bis 1753 zu Ehren der heiligen Märtyrerin Anastasia errichtet wurde, um deren Reliquien einen angemessen Ort zu schaffen.
Photo: 6 March 2011.
Source: Own work.
Author: Schlaier.
(Wikimedia Commons)

According to this "Passio", Anastasia was the daughter of Praetextatus, a Roman vir illustris, and had Chrysogonus for a teacher. Early in the Persecution of Diocletian, the Emperor summoned Chrysogonus to Aquileia, where he suffered Martyrdom. Anastasia, having gone from Aquileia to Sirmium to visit the Faithful of that place, was beheaded on the island of Palmaria, 25 December, and her body interred in the house of Apollonia, which had been converted into a Basilica. The whole account is purely legendary, and rests on no historical foundations. All that is certain is that a Martyr, named Anastasia, gave her life for the Faith in Sirmium, and that her memory was kept Sacred in that Church.

Great Martyr Anastasia,
the Deliverer from Potions
(Byzantine icon,
English: Anastasia of Sirmium (icon)
Русский: Икона «Св. мц. Анастасия». Конец XIII века — первая половина XV века.
Дерево, темпера. Размер - 99 х 65,5 см. Иконография: «Св. мц. Анастасия»
Происхождение: Приобретена на территории Турецкой империи между 1898-1914 гг. Руссским Археологическим институтом в Константинополе. С 1931 г. в Эрмитаже.
Местонахождение: Государственный ЭрмитажБиблиография: Византия, Балканы, Русь. Иконы конца XIII века - первой половины XV века: Каталог выставки к XVIII Международному конгрессу византинистов. Август-сентябрь 1991/ Государственная Третьяковская Галерея. М., 1991. Каталог № 94. С. 254.
Date: 15th-Century.
Source: http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Images/ii2384&104.htm
Author: Unknown.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The so-called Martyrologium Hieronymianum records her name on 25 December, not for Sirmium, alone, but also for Constantinople, a circumstance based on a separate story. According to Theodorus Lector, during the Patriarchate of Gennadius (458 A.D. - 471 A.D.), the body of the Martyr was transferred to Constantinople and interred in a Church which had hitherto been known as "Anastasis" (Greek: Anastasis, Resurrection); thenceforth, the Church took the name of Anastasia.

Similarly, the cultus of Saint Anastasia was introduced into Rome, from Sirmium, by means of an already existing Church. As this Church was already quite famous, it brought the Feast Day of the Saint into especial prominence. There existed in Rome from the 4th-Century, at the foot of the Palatine Hill and above the Circus Maximus, a Church which had been adorned by Pope Damasus (366 A.D. - 384 A.D.) with a large mosaic. It was known as "Titulus Anastasiae", and is mentioned as such in the Acts of the Roman Council of 499 A.D.

English: The Basilica of Saint Anastasia, The Palatine, Rome, Italy
Photo: April 2011.
Source: Own work.
Author: Karelj.
(Wikimedia Commons)

There is some uncertainty as to the origin of this name; either the Church owes its Foundation to, and was named after, a Roman matron, Anastasia, as in the case of several other Titular Churches of Rome (Duchesne), or it was originally an "Anastasis" Church (dedicated to the Resurrection of Christ), such as existed already at Ravenna and Constantinople; from the word "Anastasis" came, eventually, the name "Titulus Anastasiae" (Grisar). Whatever way this happened, the Church was an especially prominent one from the 4th- to the 6th-Century, being the only Titular Church in the centre of ancient Rome, and surrounded by the monuments of the City's pagan past.

Português: Santos Gregório e Ambrósio (acima) e Santas Anastácia e Luzia (abaixo).
English: Saint Gregory and Saint Ambrose (top) and Saint Anastasia and Saint Lucy (bottom).
South Door, The Jerónimos Monastery (or Hieronymites Monastery),
(Mosteiro dos Jerónimos), Lisbon, Portugal.
Photo: 22 January 2013.
Source: Own work.
Author: José Luiz.
Attribution: © José Luiz Bernardes Ribeiro.
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: Interior of The Basilica of Saint Anastasia, The Palatine, Rome, Italy.
Čeština: Interiér Baziliky sv. Anastázie na Palatinu, Řím, Itálie.
Photo: April 2011.
Source: Own work.
Author: Karelj.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Within its jurisdiction was the Palatine, where the Imperial Court was located. Since the Veneration of the Sirmium Martyr, Anastasia, received a new impetus in Constantinople during the second half of the 5th-Century, we may easily infer that the intimate contemporary relations between Old and New Rome brought about an increase in Devotion to Saint Anastasia at the foot of the Palatine.

In all events, the insertion of her name into the Roman Canon of the Mass towards the end of the 5th-Century, show that she then occupied a unique position among the Saints publicly venerated at Rome. Thenceforth, the Church on the Palatine is known as "Titulus Sanctae Anastasiae", and the Martyr of Sirmium became the Titular Saint of the old 4th-Century Basilica.

Evidently, because of its position as Titular Church of the District including the Imperial Dwellings on the Palatine, this Church long maintained an eminent rank among the Churches of Rome; only two Churches preceded it in honour: Saint John Lateran, the Mother-Church of Rome, and Santa Maria Maggiore.

EnglishSaint Anastasia of Sirmium.
Русский: Святая Анастасия (Анастасия Узорешительница,
Анастасия Младшая) — Святая, христианская великомученица IV века.
Date: Liège, Belgium; Circa 1250-1300.
Source: http://saints.bestlatin.net/gallery/anastasia_dutchms.htm
Author: Unknown.
(Wikimedia Commons)

This ancient Sanctuary stands today quite isolated amid the ruins of Rome. The Commemoration of Saint Anastasia, in the Second Mass on Christmas Day, is the last remnant of the former prominence enjoyed by this Saint and her Church in the life of Christian Rome.

According to tradition, Saint Donatus of Zadar brought Anastasia's Relics to Zadar from Constantinople, when he was there with the Venetian, Duke Beato. They had been ordered by Charlemagne to negotiate the border between the Byzantine Empire and the Croatian territories that were under the dominion of Charlemagne's Frankish Empire.

Deutsch: Erzbischof Michael von Faulhaber als Bayerischer Feldpropst.
English: His Eminence Michael von Faulhaber (1869-1952).
Cardinal Archbishop of Munich and Freising
and Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica of Saint Anastasia, Rome, Italy.
Previously Bishop of Speyer (1911–1917).

Date: 1917.
Source: Frontbesuch in Rumänien.
Author: M. Buchberger.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Michael von Faulhaber (5 March 1869 – 12 June 1952) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal who was Archbishop of Munich for 35 years, from 1917 to his death in 1952. Faulhaber was a political opponent of the Nazi government and considered Nazi ideology incompatible with Christianity; but he also rejected the Weimar Republic as rooted in treason and opposed democratic government in general, favouring a Catholic Monarchy.
Faulhaber spoke out against some Nazi policies, but publicly recognised the Nazi government as legitimate, required Catholic Clergy to remain loyal to the Nazi government, and maintained bridges between Fascism and the Church.
He ordained Joseph Ratzinger (future Pope Benedict XVI) as a Priest in 1951, and at his death he was the last surviving Cardinal appointed by Pope Benedict XV.

The Orthodox Church Venerates Saint Anastasia as a Great Martyr, usually referring to her as "Anastasia the Roman". She is often given the epithets, "Deliverer from Bonds" and "Deliverer from Potions", because her Intercessions are credited with the protection of the Faithful from poison and other harmful substances. Her Feast Day is celebrated on 22 December in the Eastern Orthodox Church Calendar. According to the Synaxarion, she was the daughter of Praepextatus (a pagan) and Fausta (a Christian)

In the 5th-Century, the Relics of Saint Anastasia were transferred to Constantinople, where a Church was built and Dedicated to her. Later, the head, and a hand, of the Great Martyr were transferred to the Monastery of Saint Anastasia, Deliverer from Potions, near Mount Athos.

The Monastery of Jerónimos, Lisbon, Portugal
(see photo of statuary depicting Saint Anastasia, above).
Photo: April 2009.
Source: Own work.
Author: Alvesgaspar.
(Wikimedia Commons)

The following Text is from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal.

Saint Anastasia.
Feast Day 25 December.

Second Mass at Dawn,
Christmas Day.

Station at Saint Anastasia's.

Indulgence 15 years and 15 Quarantines.

The Mass at Dawn was celebrated at Rome in the very old Church of Saint Anastasia, this Parish being the only one situated in the centre of Rome in the Patrician Quarter. Its position at the foot of the Palatine, where the Caesars resided, made Saint Anastasia's the Church of the great Court functionaries. For this reason, it was chosen as the Station for the Second Mass on Christmas Day.

Saint Anastasia was burnt alive at Sirmium (Mitrowitz, Yugoslavia), on 25 December during the Diocletian Persecution at the beginning of the 4th-Century. This Saint's name occurs in the Canon of the Mass (Second List).

St Andrew Daily Missal (Traditional Mass)

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