Saint Paul-Without-The-Walls, Rome. Author: Herbert Weber, Hildesheim. 11 October 2005. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Wikimedia Commons.

16 January 2021

Saint Marcellus. Papacy 308 A.D. - 309 A.D. Pope And Martyr. Feast Day 16 January.

Text from Wikipedia - the free encyclopædia,
unless otherwise stated.

English: Pope Saint Marcellus I.
Italiano: Papa Marcelo I.
This File: 29 October 2008.
User: Ilmari Karonen.
(Wikimedia Commons)

“Missa Papæ Marcelli”
(Pope Marcellus Mass).
Composed by: Palestrina.
Sung by: The Tallis Scholars.
Available on YouTube at

Pope Saint Marcellus I († 309 A.D.) was The Pope from May or June 308 A.D. to his death in 309 A.D. He succeeded Pope Marcellinus after a considerable interval. Under Emperor Maxentius, he was banished from Rome in 309 A.D., on account of the tumult caused by the severity of the penances he had imposed on Christians who had lapsed under the recent Persecution. He died the same year, being succeeded by Pope Eusebius. His Relics are under The High Altar of San Marcello-al-Corso, in Rome. His Feast Day is 16 January.

For some time after the death of Pope Marcellinus in 304 A.D., The Diocletian Persecution continued with unabated severity. After the Abdication of Emperor Diocletian in 305 A.D., and the accession in Rome of Emperor Maxentius to the Throne of The Cæsars in October of the following year, the Christians of the Capital again enjoyed comparative peace.

The High Altar, San Marcello-al-Corso, Rome,
under which are the Relics of Pope Saint Marcellus I.
Photo: 20 July 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: SteO153
(Wikimedia Commons)

Nevertheless, nearly two years passed before a new Bishop of Rome was elected. Then, in 308 A.D., according to The Catalogus Liberianus, Pope Marcellus first entered into Office: "Fuit temporibus Maxenti a cons. X et Maximiano usque post consulatum X et septimum". This abbreviated notice is to be read: "A cons. Maximiano Herculio X et Maximiano Galerio VII [308] usque post cons. Maxim. Herc. X et Maxim. Galer. VII [309]". 

At Rome, Marcellus found The Church in the greatest confusion. The meeting-places and some of the burial-places of The Faithful had been confiscated, and the ordinary life and activity of The Church was interrupted.

Added to this, were the dissensions within The Church, itself, caused by the large number of weaker Members, who had fallen away during the long period of Active Persecution and, later, under the leadership of an Apostate, violently demanded that they should be re-admitted to Communion without doing Penance.

English: The Church of San Marcello-al-Corso, Rome, Italy,
where the Relics of Pope Saint Marcellus I lie under The High Altar.
Italiano: Chiesa San Marcello-al-Corso, Rome
Photo: 13 November 2005.
Source: Own work.
(Wikimedia Commons)

According to “The Liber Pontificalis”, Marcellus divided the territorial administration of The Church into twenty-five Districts (Tituli), appointing over each a Presbyter, who saw to the preparation of The Catechumens for Baptism and directed the performance of public penances.

The Presbyter was also made responsible for the burial of the dead and for the Celebrations Commemorating the deaths of The Martyrs. 

The Pope also had a new burial-place, the Cœmeterium Novellœ on The Via Salaria (opposite The Catacomb of Saint Priscilla), laid out. “The Liber Pontificalis” (ed. Duchesne, I, 164) says: "Hic fecit cymiterium Novellae via Salaria et XXV titulos in urbe Roma constituit quasi diœcesis propter baptismum et pœnitentiam multorum qui convertebantur ex paganis et propter sepulturas martyrum". 

At the beginning of the 7th-Century A.D., there were probably twenty-five Titular Churches in Rome; even granting that, perhaps, the compiler of “The Liber Pontificalis” referred this number to the time of Marcellus, there is still a clear historical Tradition, in support of his declaration, that the Ecclesiastical administration in Rome was re-organised by this Pope after “The Great Persecution”.

The High Altar, San Marcello-al-Corso, Rome,
under which are the Relics of Pope Saint Marcellus I.
Photo: 20 July 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: SteO153
(Wikimedia Commons)

The work of The Pope was, however, quickly interrupted by the controversies to which the question of the re-admittance of “The Lapsi” [Editor: “The Lapsed Members of The Church”] into The Church gave rise.

As to this, we gather some light from the poetic tribute composed by Pope Damasus I, in Memory of his predecessor and placed over his grave (De Rossi, "Inscr. christ. urbis Romæ", II, 62, 103, 138; cf. Idem, "Roma sotterranea", II, 204–5). 

Pope Damasus relates that Pope Marcellus was looked upon as a wicked enemy by all the lapsed, because he insisted that they should perform the prescribed Penance for their guilt. As a result, serious conflicts arose, some of which ended in bloodshed, and every bond of peace was broken. At the head of this band of dissenters was an Apostate who had denied The Faith even before the outbreak of persecution. 

The tyrannical Emperor Maxentius had the Pope seized and sent into Exile. This took place at the end of 308 A.D., or the beginning of 309 A.D., according to the passages cited above from “The Catalogus Liberianus”, which gives the length of the Pontificate as no more than one year, six (or seven) months, and twenty days. Marcellus died shortly after leaving Rome, and was Venerated as a Saint.

“The Liber Pontificalis”.
“The Book of Pontiffs”.
Artist: Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449–1494).
Title: Saint Jerome in his Study.
Saint Jerome, who, since the 9th-Century A.D.,
has been viewed  as the original author of “The Liber Pontificalis”.
Date: 1480.
Current location: Chiesa di Ognissanti, Florence, Italy.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Church of All Saints (Chiesa di Ognissanti), Florence, Italy.
This is where The Liber Pontificalis is currently located (see, above).
Photo: 19 May 2007.
Source: Own work.
Author: sailko
(Wikimedia Commons)

His Feast Day was 16 January, according to the Depositio episcoporum of the Chronography of 354 A.D., and every other Roman authority. Nevertheless, it is not known whether this is the date of his death or that of the burial of his remains, after these had been brought back from the unknown quarter to which he had been exiled.

He was buried in the Catacomb of Saint Priscilla, where his grave is mentioned by the itineraries to the graves of The Roman Martyrs as existing in The Basilica of Saint Silvester (De Rossi, Roma sotterranea, I, 176).

A 5th-Century A.D. "Passio Marcelli", which is included in the legendary account of The Martyrdom of Saint Cyriacus (cf. Acta Sanct., Jan., II, 369) and is followed by “The Liber Pontificalis”, gives a different account of the end of Marcellus. According to this version, The Pope was required by Emperor Maxentius, who was enraged at his re-organisation of The Church, to lay aside his Episcopal dignity and make an offering to the Roman gods.

On his refusal, he was condemned to work as a slave at a station on the public highway (“catabulum”). At the end of nine months, he was set free by The Clergy; but a Matron, named Lucina, having had her house on The Via Lata Consecrated by him as "Titulus Marcelli", he was again condemned to the work of attending to the horses brought into the station, in which menial occupation he died.

All this is probably legendary, the reference to the restoration of Ecclesiastical activity by Marcellus alone having an historical basis. The tradition related in the verses of Damasus seems much more worthy of belief.

The Feast of Saint Marcellus, whose name is to this day borne by The Church at Rome, mentioned in the above legend, is still Celebrated on 16 January. There still remains to be mentioned Mommsen's peculiar view that Marcellus was not really a Bishop, but a simple Roman Presbyter, to whom was committed the Ecclesiastical administration during the latter part of the period of vacancy of The Papal Chair. According to this view, 16 January was really the date of Marcellus' death, the next occupant of The Papal Chair being Eusebius (Neues Archiv, 1896, XXI, 350–3). This hypothesis has, however, found no support.

The following Text is from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal.

Saint Marcellus.
   Pope and Martyr.
   Feast Day 16 January.


Red Vestments.

As Supreme Head of The Church (Introit, Gradual) at the time of the last Persecutions of The Roman Emperors, Saint Marcellus bore witness to The Divinity of Christ "by losing his life for His sake" (Gospel).

The Holy Widow, Lucina, having offered him her house, he transformed it into a Church, now called Saint Marcellus's. Emperor Maxentius transferred there certain deer from the public stables and condemned the Holy Pope to keep them. His sufferings, tempered by Divine Consolation, made him feel all the more for the troubles of his flock (Epistle). Exhausted by ill-treatment, conquered by pain, he died in 309 A.D.

His heroic resistance, against which The Caesar's violence was broken, proves that Jesus is God, for "it is His powerful hand that succours His servant, and His arm which strengthens him, so that the enemy shall not get the better of him" (Gradual).

The Divine Reign of The Saviour will indeed soon be acknowledged and, with The Emperor Constantine, The Church of Rome, "Queen of Churches", as Saint Marcellus called her, will be Queen of the World, not only in The Spiritual Order, but also in The Temporal.

Let us imitate the courage of the Holy Pontiff, Marcellus, in defending The Divine Rights of Christ, in order that they may be manifested again by The triumph of The Church.

Mass: Státuit ei Dominus: (First Mass of a Martyr Bishop).
Collects: Are Proper to Saint Marcellus' Feast Day.

Rouen, France. “Voyages Liturgiques De France: The Cathedral Chapter”.

This Article is taken from, and can be read in full at, CANTICUM SALOMONIS

Rouen Cathedral.
Illustration: SHUTTERSTOCK

The Cathedral Church of Notre-Dame, Rouen, France.


Rouen Cathedral.
Available on YouTube AT

Jean-Baptiste Le Brun des Marettes (1651-1731), also known as Sir de Moléon, was a Rouennais editor attached to The Abbey of Port-Royal.

After his Father was imprisoned for his support of The Jansenists, de Moléon and the rest of the family were taken in by the Community of Port-Royal. He pursued a minor career in editing, wrote also a Life of Saint Paulinus and translated The Works of Lactantius and Saint Prosper. But we are most indebted to him for his Work "Voyages Liturgiques de France, Paris", 1718, reprinted 1757, a lengthy account of the author’s observations of Liturgical Ceremonies in the Major Churches and Monasteries of The Gallican Church.

The Text is a valuable eye-witness source for Gallican Liturgical practices in the 17th-Century, cited by Jungmann more than fifty times, as De Moléon notes both what he sees being practiced and what he finds in the most ancient Ordinaries of the Communities he visits.

One of the most remarkable objects to behold, in these accounts, is the richness and integrity of The Life of The Cathedral Chapters, the large Clerical Communities of The Great Cathedrals, who, alone, made it possible to execute The Solemn Liturgical Services of The Church, in all their fullness, on every Day of the Year. It is largely to the passing of such Communities that the diminution of the splendour of Western Liturgical Life in the intervening Centuries can be attributed. [1]

“The taste I have always had,
for the Rites and Ancient Customs of The Churches
of France, has led me to undertake many journeys
throughout the Provinces of France.

“I have visited the greater part of the most-
well-known Churches and Cathedrals, and
I believe that, in the course of these journeys,
I have made some discoveries in Ecclesiastical and Pagan Antiquity that may be of some use
to the public and, especially, to The Church.”

English: Rouen Cathedral, Seine-Maritime, Normandie, France.
Two 16th-Century Stained-Glass Windows, in The South Transept,
telling the story of Saint Romain.
Français: Notre-Dame de Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Normandie, France.
Deux vitraux du XVIè siècle dans le bras sud du transept,
relatant l'histoire de Saint Romain.
Photo: 4 September 2008.
Source: Own work.
Author: Tango7174
(Wikimedia Commons)

Following the Chapter on Vienne, we continue with "Voyages Liturgiques" account of Rouen, the longest and richest in the Work, it being the hometown of the author.

Rouen, the Capital City of The Second Lyonnaise, also known as The Province of Neustria, called "Normandy", ever since The Normans made themselves its masters, is situated on The Bank of The River Seine (ad Sequanam). It is one of the most beautiful Cities of The Realm. In Latin, it is called Rotomagus and, sometimes, the Ancients called it "Rotomus" and "Rodomus".

In the City of Rouen, France, and its outskirts, there are thirty-six Parish Churches and about Fifty Religious Houses, of both sexes, and, in the Diocese, twenty-six Abbeys, a number of Priories, Chapels, and Sick-Houses; ten Collegiate Churches of Canons, and 1,388 Parishes, or Curacies, distributed among six Archdeacons and twenty-seven Rural Deans, all under the Dean of the Curates of the City and Suburbs, who is called The Dean of Christendom (Doyen de la Chrétienté), in Latin, "Decanus Christianitatis". He is named by the Archbishop and must be a Curate of the City, "intra muros", and not from the outskirts. He does not have a Seat in Choir among the Canons of the Cathedral, but he has the right to wear the Habit of a Canon.

The Church of Rouen has always been highly distinguished. From the 4th-Century A.D., onward, it flourished in piety, according to the testimony of Saint Paulinus in his Letter to Saint Victrix, where he speaks very highly of the people of Rouen. In the 12th-Century, it was the most famous of all the Churches, not only in Normandy but even of England and Aquitaine, according to Richard II, King of England and Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine.

Rouen was called Holy, "Sancta Rotomagensis Ecclesia", by the Kings of France and England and many Prelates. One more sign, that it was so impressive for its piety in the 12th-Century, is that Saint Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, recommended himself to the Prayers, Fastings, and other Good Works, of this Church and of the whole people of Rouen.

The Nave of the Cathedral Church is quite large and stately, with Galleries that run all the way across under Stained-Glass Windows. In total, it is four hundred and eight feet long; the Nave is two hundred and ten feet long; the Choir is one hundred and ten feet long; and the Chapel of The Virgin Mary is eighty-eight feet long.

Photo: 14 May 2014.
Source: Own work.
Author: DXR
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Crossing is 164 feet long; The whole Cathedral is very well proportioned and paved with large Liais Stones. There is one Aisle on each side of The Choir and Nave, and, beside it, another Aisle, which is entirely occupied by Chapels on each side. They are very beautiful and well-kept, and were decorated and furnished thirty or forty years ago through the generosity of many Canons, who also took pains to make the Church much more clear than it had been.[2]

Currently, the Chapels are used for Low Masses. Since Low Masses were never said in the time when this Church was built, these places were probably once used for those who wanted to Pray and meditate, alone, outside the time of The Divine Offices, as well as to bury persons who were important for their piety or rank, as we see in the thirty-second Letter of Saint Paulinus, who had several Churches built in Nola, Italy, which bear a very close resemblance to our own. There we see that The High Altar was under a large "Conque", or, "Cupola", and that on each side there were two smaller Cupolas, one serving as a Sacristy, as it still does in the Cathedral Church of Rouen, and the other for keeping the Holy Books and Writings of The Fathers.

Only Major Canons can Serve as Sub-Deacon and Deacon, and say Mass at The High Altar; not even The King’s Almoner could say a Low Mass there in the presence of His Majesty, unless he were a Bishop that The Chapter had invited.

The Chapter is composed of ten Dignitaries and fifty one Canons, counting the Archbishop, who is also a Canon, and, in this capacity, has a voice in The Chapter, where he holds the first place and presides. All the Canonries and all the Dignitaries of the Cathedral Church are his to nominate, except the High-Dean, who is elected by The Chapter.

In addition, there are eight Minor Canons, who receive fifteen Marks and fifteen Pounds, have no voice in Chapter, and sit in The Second Row of Stalls, with the Chaplains, Cantors, and Musicians.

There are also four Colleges of Chaplains and Cantors. One of them, called Alban, was Founded by Pierre de Colmieu, Cardinal of Albano (and, formerly, Archbishop of Rouen) for ten Cantors, of which four are Priests, three Deacons, and three Sub-Deacons, all of whom must live together in the same house or under the same roof and live in community. Only fifty years ago, they were still living this way and doing Table Readings.[3]

The Statutes forbid them to frequent Taverns, jeux de paume,[4] boules,[5] and other public places, or to play "brelans" or "berlans" [6] to bring dogs into the Church, under pain of monetary fine; to rent their rooms in the college; to carry Breviaries or other books to Choir [7], nor to read during The Office, or to begin a Verse until the other side [Editor: Of The Choir] had entirely finished singing its own.[8]

They are obliged to know The Psalter and Chant, by heart, for the Chanting is done from memory in this illustrious Church, as in Lyon. There is only one Book for The Lessons, and another for The Short Chapters and Collects.

The Major Canons, even those who Chant four or five Responsories on Semi-Double and Greater Feasts, and who wear Copes on Double and Triple Feasts, are obliged to know by heart everything they Chant, and the Musicians, as well, unless they are Chanting a Mass "Sur Le Livre" [9]

In the Church of Rouen, Second Vespers are always less Solemn than First Vespers, no matter The Feast. Apparently, this is because, immediately after Second Vespers, the Solemnity of The Feast ended, and, afterwards, it was permitted to do servile labour, again. This was the practice already at the end of the 11th-Century, as I gather from The Benedictine Scholar, Dom Godin, in his "Notes On A Council of Rouen [10]held in 1072, from The Councils of Compiègne, and Lyon, from The Capitularies of Charles the Bald and Louis the Fair, which made it obligatory to stop manual labour, beginning with First Vespers, in imitation of God’s command to the Jews "A vespera ad vesperam celebrabitis Sabbata vestra (Lev. 23:32).

Though this policy, with regard to ceasing from manual labour, has changed, and is now only observed from midnight to midnight, nevertheless, this Church has always retained its ancient practice in the Celebration of Sundays and Feasts, beginning to Celebrate them with First Vespers [11]

I do not know precisely when this practice changed as a public expression in Normandy. It could not have been very long ago, because the very old women in The Norman Countryside still refrain from spinning on Saturday afternoon. Moreover, in Rouen, even the Artisans of most Trades do not dare to work on the evenings of Solemn Vespers after the first sounding of First Vespers, according to their statutes.

English: Rouen Cathedral
The Church was the tallest building in the World
(1876-1880), with a height of 151 metres (495 feet).
Photo: 15 February 2014.
Source: Own work.
Author: DXR
(Wikimedia Commons)

If they are found working by the guards or judges of their Trade, who purposely make their visits on those days, they are charged a fine. I have observed this many times in Rouen. On the principal Feasts, The City Gates are closed, except for a little gate.Here are some Customs and Ceremonies taken from the ancient Ordinal and Ceremonial of Rouen, which is nearly six hundred and fifty years old.[12]

The Canons of Rouen lived in Community, at least around the year 1000 A.D., and were called Brothers (Frères). From the epitaph of Guillaume Bonne-ame (+ 1110), we can see that they had a Cloister, "Fratribus hanc aedem cum claustro composuisti".

They said Vespers at the beginning of Night, "imminente nocte", as, formerly, in The Church of Paris. Hence, this Office is called "Lucernarum" or, "Lucernalis Hora", because, in fact, they made use of light to Chant the Prayers. (See “Bourges” and “Lyon.”). For the same reason, they bring Candlesticks, Lighted Candles, or "Bougies". This Office is when they light their Candles.

The Altar was Incensed during the Versicle before The Magnificat. The Versicle "Dirigatur oratio mea sicut incensum" is, apparently, the literal reason for this. Furthermore, this Versicle is not said on Ferial Days, when there is no Incensation.

English: Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Rouen, France.
The entrance to The Libraries.
Français: Notre-Dame de Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Normandie, France.
Portail des libraires.
Photo: 4 September 2008.
Source: Own work.
Author: Tango7174
(Wikimedia Commons)

Outside of Sundays and Feasts, after The Magnificat Antiphon, they always said The Preces before the Collect, as The Carthusians still do, and the famous Church of Lyon. After Vespers, they still busied themselves with manual labour.

Before Compline, they had a Reading from The Conferences of Cassian, or, The Dialogues of Saint Gregory, or other works containing examples of The Saints suitable to encourage one to good actions. "In Completorii hora nos contra noctis insidias munientes . . . quam lectio praecedit de exemplis Sanctorum Patrum excitandas in in bono animas fratrum".

They rose at Midnight (as they still do in Paris) to say The Vigils, or Nocturns, later called Matins. This lasted in Rouen until 1325, when they began to be said later on account of certain night terrors which troubled them at that time, according to The Chronicle of Saint Lô. In other manuscript memoirs, however, one finds that in 1324 there was a Statute made in the Church of Rouen decreeing that Matins would no longer be said at Midnight because one Canon had been killed by a thief on his way to Matins.

Illustration: SHUTTERSTOCK

They began with "Domine labia mea aperies", according to the ancient Ordinal of Rouen "Quia somno dominante hucusque conticuimus, Dominum deprecamur, ut labia nostra ad laudem suam pronuntiandam aperire dignetur". I also read, in Amalarius: "Congrue juxta consuetudinem Romanae Ecclesiae, a somno surgentes dicimus primo, Domine labia mea aperies"". Elsewhere, this Verse is called "Versus apertionis", because it is with this Verse that they first opened their mouths immediately after rising to sing God’s praises.

Properly speaking, the "Domine labia mea aperies" is a preparation for saying The Office. What certain devout people think should be said before this is nothing but a preparation for the preparation, which is against the axiom of philosophy "non datur dispositio dispositionis [13] Lauds has the same Ritual as Vespers.

Every time they Chanted "The Gloria Patri", The Canons and other Ecclesiastics turned toward the Altar and bowed, as The Canons of Lyon and The Choir Boys in all Cathedral Churches still do.

The Antiphon of Prime was taken from one of the Psalms, like that of Compline, no matter what Feast Day it might be. This was changed only one hundred years ago.

After Prime, during the year, and after Terce, in Lent, The Canons went to Chapter, where they held The Reading of The Martyrology (they still do this currently outside of Solemn Feasts), then The Necrology, or Obituary, and, finally, The Rule of Canons [14] "Inde recitetur lectio Regulae Canonicalis. Deiinde culpae examinentur, examinatio canonicaliter exerceatur". They held an examination of faults and punished them as they deserved, as we still find in a 450-year-old Ordinal, where it is written "Post hæc solent recitari marantiæ [15] et offensæ diei et horarum præcedentium, et ibi puniri".

The Canons did not venture to leave The Choir without The Dean’s permission, nor the other Ecclesiastics without the permission of The Cantor.


At that time in Rouen, The Mass was said almost exactly as at Lyon. On Ferial Days, there was only one Candle-Bearer, as at Tours, Orléans, etc. On Feast Days, there were two Candle-Bearers. The Celebrant, with his Ministers, left the Sacristy at the Gloria Patri of the Introit, as in Lyon. After the Confiteor, the Celebrant kissed the Deacon and Sub-Deacon. After a Collect, the Celebrant bowed to the deacon, the Deacon to the Sub-Deacon, and the Sub-Deacon to the Choir, with reciprocal inclinations.

Then, the Celebrant went up to the Altar, and the Deacon, as well, who, after kissing the two corners of the Altar, presented the Gospel Book to the Celebrant to be kissed. The Celebrant also kissed the middle of the Altar. Then, the Priest went to The Right Side of the Altar, followed by the Deacon, who remained standing until the Priest gave the sign to sit. They sat when the Kyrie Eleison began. Note that the Celebrant did not read the Introit, nor the Kyrie, at the Altar.

The Candle-Bearers, placed at the Southern corner, held their Candles up toward the North. At the beginning of the Kyrie, they put them down in the same place. They held them up in the same place while the Priest Chanted the Collects, and very probably faced that direction to give light to the Celebrant.

Sometimes, they added a third Candle, apparently on Double Feasts. On Major Feasts, there were seven Candle-Bearers. After the Collect, they placed the Candles from East to West.

When the Deacon was not performing a function at the Altar, he was in the Choir, as in The Church of Lyon.

At the Gloria In Excelsis, the Celebrant Incensed the Altar. Currently, he does it during the Kyrie (while the Acolyte Incenses the Clergy during the Gloria In Excelsis and Credo).

When the Sub-Deacon began the Epistle, the Celebrant sat and made the sign to the Deacon to sit, as well "Incipiente subdiacono Epistolam, sacerdos iuxta altare sedeat, et diacono in loco suo sedere innuat". From this, we can tell that the Priest did not read it at the Altar (nor elsewhere, since there is no mention of it). The Epistle and Gospel were Chanted from the Jubé on Feast Days, as well as the Gradual and Alleluia, which were Chanted ""per rotulos" as in Lyon, on Ivory Tablets [16] This may be what the ancient Ordinal calls "tabulas osseas quas tenent in manibus".

When the Deacon and Sub-Deacon use Folded Chasubles, i.e. on Ember Saturdays and during all of Advent and Lent (except Feast Days), the Sub-Deacon took off his Chasuble before reading the Epistle and put it on again after reading. Immediately before reading the Gospel, the Deacon wrapped his Chasuble around over his Left Shoulder, tying it under his Right Arm. He wore it this way until the Communion, when he put it back on as at the beginning of Mass. (This is also the practice observed currently.)

When it was time to go to the Jubé, the Celebrant put Incense in the Thurible and incensed the Altar. Then the Deacon, having asked and received the Priest’s Blessing, went to the Jubé, carrying the Gospel Book resting on his Left Shoulder, preceded by a Sub-Deacon, who held a Pillow, by Candle-Bearers, and a Thurifer. (It is the same, today, except that the Sub-Deacon does not carry a Pillow). The Deacon, standing in the highest part of the Jubé, between two Candles, Chanted the Gospel, toward the North, after having Incensed it. They came back from the Jubé in the same order they went to it.

After the Gospel, they extinguished the Candles.

The Celebrant was Incensed after the Sub-Deacon had presented the Gospel Book for him to kiss. The Deacon kissed it, thereafter, and, on Sundays and Feasts, the Sub-Deacon would then take it to be kissed by the Clergy. This is still done, today, except that the Deacon does not kiss it. I do not see the reason for this: He used to kiss it, before. The Sub-Deacon kissed it last of all.

The Offertory Antiphon always had Verses, as at Lyon, and they are still preserved in some Sunday Masses, and especially in Masses of The Dead. A more modern Ordinal of The Church of Rouen forbade their omission under pain of Anathema, unless the Priest was ready to say the Preface "Statutum est in ecclesia Rotomagensi per totum annum versus Offerendarum secundum suum ordinem cantare, et sub anathemate jussum ne dimittantur propter cleri negligentiam, nisi presbyter fuerit promptus ad Per omnia". And so some [viz. the longer ones] were omitted.. When this happens in Lyon, the Verses are not omitted. Instead, the last Verses are sung more quickly, as I have seen done on The Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, when there were four Verses to the Offertory with the repetition of the Antiphon, or first Verse only, after the asterisk, as they do for the Offertory of The Mass for The Dead [17]

The Sub-Deacon gave the Bread and Wine to the Deacon, and the Deacon to the Priest, like today. On Major Feasts, the Cantor gave the Water, covered with a Towel, to the Deacon, who poured it into the Chalice, as the Cantor still does in Angers on the most Solemn Feasts, which they call "Jours de Fêtage.[18] On other days, it was the Acolyte who gave the Water, as he still does at present.

The Chalice was not placed in the middle of the Corporal, as today, but to the Right of the Host, and on the same line. The same arrangement is found in the Ordo Romanus, Amalarius, the Micrologus, and Radulphus of Rivo. The Chalice was covered, not by a Pall, but by the Corporal, just as they do today in Lyon and among the Carthusians, who have not innovated in this matter.

Next, the Priest Incensed the Offerings and gave the Thurible to the Deacon, who, after Incensing around the Altar, Incensed the Celebrant, then gave the Thurible to the Acolyte, who proceeded to Incense the Clergy and the People.

The Deacon took the Paten from the Altar and gave it to the Sub-Deacon, and the Sub-Deacon gave it, wrapped in a Veil, to an Acolyte, if there was one,[19] as in Paris and Tours. Otherwise, he held it himself, as is done in Rouen, today.

I have said that it was the Deacon who took it from the Altar, because the Sub-Deacon was not allowed to take anything Sacred from the Altar. "Non licet enim", says the ancient Ordinal, "quidquam sacri ab altari auferre alicui nisi Diacono vel Sacerdoti". This is still diligently observed in the Cathedral Church, where the Sub-Deacon even brings the Chalice with both his hands covered by a Veil, and takes it back to the Sacristy, during the last Collects of The Mass, in the same way, after the Deacon has purified it and helped him place it in the large Veil. Thus, the Sub-Deacon never touches it at all, which he was prohibited from doing by Canon 21 of The Council of Laodicea.

Everything else, until the Canon, has nothing particular.

During the Canon, the Deacon, Thurifer, and Candle-Bearers, stood bowing behind the Celebrant, but the Sub-Deacon was bowed in front of the Priest, facing him, as at Lyon. Note that, at that time, there was no Retable, or Altarpiece, above the Altar, which was a simple Table, entirely unattached to anything else, without a Retable, like the arrangement today in the Cathedral Churches of Lyon, Chalon-sur-Saône, and Blois, and the Morning Mass Altar in Bourges, and Mâcon. On Solemn Feasts with seven Sub-Deacons, they stood in a line behind the Altar, facing the Priest; the seven Deacons stood also in a line behind the Priest.

Neither in the ancient Ordinal of Rouen, nor in the Ordo Romanus, nor in any of the ancient authors or interpreters of The Divine Offices, is there any mention of The Elevation of The Host and Chalice, separately, but only of one Elevation immediately before the Pater or during the Pater.

It is marked in the 1516 Missal of Rouen that, at the Prayer "Supplices te rogamus", the Priest bowed profoundly before the Altar, his hands not joined, like today, but crossed (Right over Left) until "ex hac altaris participatione". The same is found in the three Missals of England and Scotland, before their separation from The Catholic Church, in the Missals of Orléans (1504), Vienne (1519), Lyon (1530), and (I believe) in all the Missals of France until the time of Pope Saint Pius V, who made this change in his Missal that has been followed almost everywhere.

At "Per quem haec omnia, Domine", the Deacon approached the Altar and took the Corporal from the Chalice, which he uncovered with the Priest.

There is a note that the Priest touched the four sides of the Chalice with the Host: Oblata quatuor partes calicis tangat. This is also found in the ancient Ordo Romanus and in Ivo of Chartres, Letter 233. (The new Rubricists make it a matter of great scruple for the Priest, and insist that he must take care that the Host does not touch the Chalice while he says "Sanctitas", and the rest. This is certainly because they do not know the real reason for this practice.)

After breaking the Host in three parts, the Priest puts the smallest particle in the Chalice and the two others on the Paten, as today. He, the Deacon, and the Sub-Deacon, took Communion from the larger of the two particles, while the other was reserved for the "Viaticum Of The Dying", "Tertia, Viaticum Morientis. [ . . . ]

The Priests and Ministers of the Altar received Communion under the two Species, separately. The Priest received, as Priests do, today. The Deacon and Sub-Deacon received the Priest’s kiss, they kissed his hand when he presented them a particle of The Sacred Host. Then the Priest took a bit of The Precious Blood, with a small particle of The Host, and gave the rest to the Deacon and Sub-Deacon to drink, as they do today at Cluny and Saint-Denys, in France, [20] [ . . . ]

After Communion, the Priest did not effect an Ablution. Rather, while the Ministers took Communion from the Chalice, an Acolyte brought another Vessel to wash the Priest’s hands, as observed today in Lyon, Chartres, and among the Carthusians, and as they did in Rouen until a Century ago. The purpose of this form of Ablution is so that the Priest is not obliged to drink what is rinsed from his fingers

The Sub-Deacon helped the Deacon purify the Chalice and Paten. (Only the Deacon does this, today, in the Cathedral Church of Rouen, and in Lyon, while the Sub-Deacon carries the Book to the other side of the Altar.) An Acolyte received the Chalice and Paten, wrapped in a large Veil.

It is not said that the Priest read the Communion Antiphon, but only the [Post-Communion] Prayer, preceded and followed by "Dominus vobiscum" and then the "Ite, missa est" or "Benedicamus Domino", chanted by the Deacon. "Clero respondente Deo gratias, officium finiat". The Mass and all The Divine Offices finished in this way. What has been added on later [i.e. The Last Gospel] is very modern, from a Century, or Century and a half, ago, as we can see in the old Books. The people of Rouen are not even accustomed to it, yet. When the Priest has given the Blessing, everyone leaves. Finally, if Sext is to be said, the Choir begins the "Deus in adjutorium", immediately, without any regard for the Priest if he is reciting The Last Gospel. We have already seen that the Celebrant does not recite it at High Masses in most Churches of France.


[1] Letter 18. Des Marettes edited a Collection of Saint Paulinus’ Writings.

[2] Perhaps referring to the removal of Altars and other elements in the Nave, which accelerated in the Late-17th-Century. The appeal to “clarity” was often used to justify clearing away objects, such as Rood Screens, that impeded a clear view of the Choir and Nave. See Fr. Thiers’ Work on The History Of Jubés In France.

[3] By The High Middle Ages, most Cathedral Chapters no longer observed the full Community Life. Canons lived in their own houses in Town (with other Clerics and Choir Students) or within the Cathedral compound, attending Offices, but not Dining or Reading "In Common". Their Vicars and the Chaplains of the Cathedral, however, often organised into Chapters, to live The Community Life that the Canons themselves were failing to uphold. To observe, that the Alban Chapter was “doing Table Readings”, is to say that they were not only eating together but keeping the ancient Monastic Rule of Silence during meals.

[4] A Ball-and-Court game, precursor of Tennis.

[5] Any of a number of games, like Bocce, that involve throwing Balls at small targets.

[6] Three-person Card games

[7] Perhaps because they were to have the Office memorised.

[8] Another sign of careful observance: As less-than-enthusiastic Communities would have sped through the required Psalms.

[9] Abbé Jean Prim, “Chant sur le Livre” in French Churches in the 18th-Century,” Journal of the American Musicological Society, vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring, 1961), pp. 37-49; Jean-Paul Montagnier, “Le Chant sur le Livre au XVIIIe siècle: les Traités de Louis-Joseph Marchand et Henry Madin,” Revue de Musicologie, T. 81, No. 1 (1995), pp. 37-63.

[10] Recueil des décrets des Conciles et des Synodes de l’église de Rouen; actually published by Dom Pommeraye.

[11] Under Canon Law, Liturgical Days began to be considered to take place from Midnight to Midnight, so it was licit to continue working after First Vespers. Similarly, Pre-Vatican II Fasts were Midnight-to-Midnight.

[12] Several Liturgical Books from the period survive. See the Usuarium database.

[13] He is criticising the Prayer “Aperi, Domine, os meum . . .” which was never obligatory, but extremely common, until Pope Saint John XXIII removed it from the "Editio Typica" of The Breviary and suppressed the Indulgences attached to its recitation.

[14] i.e., The Rule of Saint Augustine.

[15] Du Cange; MARANCIA, Dolor, qui concipitur ex aliquo damno, vox a Marrire, et Marritio deducta : unde postmodum traducta ad ipsas mulctas aut pœnas, quæ præ levioribus delictis, vel pro defectibus seu absentia irrogatur : nostris vulgo Marance.

[16] See The Post on Vienne.

[17] The issue is long Offertories that lasted longer than the Offertory Ritual. In Rouen, the Verses are dropped if the Priest was ready. In Lyons, they just sang the Verses more quickly, and repeated part of the Response (after the asterisk) rather than the whole Response. There were always varied customs about what Response to sing; all of it, or part of it, and which part. Different MSS say different things, or do not mark it at all.

[18] This is an ancient aspect of the Roman Rite, as seen in the Ordo Romanus I. See also Gemma animae 1.38.

[19] In the Ordo Romanus I, the Acolyte holds the Paten.

[20] On the Greek Mass of Saint Denis.

15 January 2021

The Grand Trunk Rail Road. An Express Train Leaves Portland And Danville Junction For Montreal, Quebec, And Toronto, Every Morning.


Illustration: PINTEREST

Saint Maurus. Abbot. Feast Day 15 January.

Text from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal,
unless stated otherwise.

Saint Maurus.
   Feast Day 15 January.


White Vestments.

Saint Benedict orders Saint Maurus to the rescue of Saint Placidus. circa 1445
Current location: The National Gallery of ArtWashington, DC, USA.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Having been committed in his earliest childhood by the Senator, Eutychius, his father, to the care of Saint Benedict, the great Patriarch of The Monks of The West, Saint Maurus faithfully reproduced all the virtues of his Master.

The latter, having commanded him to save young Placid, who was drowning, he walked with simple confidence on the waters of a torrent and brought him back safe and sound.

Having been sent to Gaul, according to a Tradition, he promulgated “The Holy Rule of Saint Benedict”, Founded The Monastery at Glanfeuil, France, and wrought many Miracles.

By his Doctrine, permeated by Evangelical perfection, and by his Works, that is to say. by thousands of Abbeys which, during twelve Centuries covered France, and which all sprang from the one he had Founded, he bore striking testimony to The Divinity of Jesus.

He died in 584 A.D.

Mass: Os justi: (From The Common of Abbots).

Saint Paul. The First Hermit. Whose Feast Day Is, Today, 15 January.

Text from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal,
unless otherwise stated.

Saint Paul. The First Hermit.
   Feast Day 15 January.


White Vestments.

English: Saint Paul.
The First Hermit.
Español: San Pablo Ermitaño.
Español: San Pablo, el primer ermitaño, medita ante una calavera en la soledad de su retiro. Es una obra de la última etapa de Ribera, quien desterró las tinieblas que caracterizan las primeras décadas de su carrera y apostó por una mayor claridad y una gama cromática más amplia.
Artist: Jusepe de Ribera (1591–1652).
Date: 1640.
(Wikimedia Commons)

Saint Paul, The Father of Hermits, had Saint Jerome for his historian. Having become an orphan at the age of fifteen, he gave up his possessions and retired into a desert, where a flourishing palm-tree, a symbol of his virtues (Introit) provided him with food and clothing.

He Meditated in solitude on the science of sciences, which is to know Jesus Christ (Epistle) and The Father, Whom Christ reveals to The Humble (Gospel). He lived thus to the age of one hundred and twelve, enjoying in the heroic exercise of Prayer and Penance the sweetness of The Lord's Yoke (ibid.).

The great Saint Anthony of The Desert visited him, a little before his death, and Saint Paul asked him, as a last favour, to allow him to sleep his last sleep in the cloak of Saint Athanasius, the invincible Defender of The Divinity of Christ.

The Coat of Arms of the Pauline Fathers.png

Coat-of-Arms of The Order of Saint Paul The First Hermit.
The Pauline Fathers.
Photo: 10 April 2017.
Source: Own work.
Author: Roman433
(Wikimedia Commons)

Abbreviation: O.S.P.P.E.
Motto: “Solus Cum Deo Solo”.
Formation: 1250 A.D.
Headquarters: Jasna Gora, Poland.
Key people:
Blessed Eusebius of Esztergom,
Bishop Bartholomew of Pécs.
Website: HERE

He thereby affirmed that he died in the communion of this Saint and that his own long life of Penance had encouraged those who fought against The Arian Heresy. He died towards 342 A.D.

During this Season after Epiphany, Consecrated to The Manifestation of The Divinity of Jesus, let us, with Saint Paul The First Hermit, endeavour to convince ourselves that a Christian life consists in recognising Christ as The Son of God and in Sanctifying ourselves by making His Divine Holiness our own (Epistle).

Mass: Justus ut palma: (Second Mass of a Confessor, not a Bishop).
Collect: Deus qui nos.
Commemoration: Of Saint Maurus (Abbot).
Collect: Intercéssio.

The Coat of Arms of the Pauline Fathers.png

The following Text is from Wikipedia - the free encyclopædia.

Saint Paul, The First Hermit (Anba Boula) (Ava Pavly) , commonly known as Saint Paul the First Hermit, or Saint Paul the Anchorite, or Saint Paul of Thebes ( circa 341 A.D.), is regarded as The First Christian Hermit. He is not to be confused with Paul The Simple, who was a disciple of Anthony the Great.

The Life of Saint Paul The First Hermit was composed in Latin by Saint Jerome, circa 375 A.D. The legend, according to Jerome's “Vitæ Patrum” (Vita Pauli primi eremitæ), is that, as a young man, Paul fled to The Theban Desert during The Persecution of Emperors Decius and Valerianus, around 250 A.D.

At that time, Paul and his married sister, both of whom lived in The Thebaid [Editor: Region of ancient Egypt], lost their parents. In order to obtain Paul's inheritance, his brother-in-law sought to betray him to the persecutors.

He lived in the mountains of this desert, in a cave near a clear spring and a palm tree, the leaves of which provided him with raiment, and the fruit of which provided him with his only source of food, until he was 43 years old, when a raven started bringing him half a loaf of bread daily. He would remain in that cave for the rest of his life, almost a hundred years.

The Coat of Arms of the Pauline Fathers.png

Paul of Thebes is known to posterity because Anthony, in the year 342 A.D., was told in a dream about the older Hermit's existence, and went to find him.

Familiar stories, from “The Life”, include: The meeting of Saint Paul and Saint Anthony; the raven which brought them bread; Saint Anthony being sent to fetch the cloak, given him by “Athanasius the Bishop”, in which to bury Saint Paul; Saint Paul's death, before he returned; and the grave dug by lions.

Jerome further related the meeting of Anthony the Great and Paul, when the latter was aged one hundred and thirteen. They conversed with each other for one day and one night. The Synaxarium shows each Saint inviting the other to Bless and Break the Bread, as a token of honour. Saint Paul held one side, putting the other side into the hands of Father Anthony, and soon the bread broke through the middle and each took his part.

When Anthony next visited him, Paul was dead. Anthony clothed him in a tunic, which was a present from Athanasius of Alexandria, and buried him, with two lions helping to dig the grave.

Father Anthony returned to his Monastery, taking with him the robe woven with palm leaf. He honoured the robe so much that he only wore it twice a year: At Easter and at Pentecost.

The Coat of Arms of the Pauline Fathers.png

Saint Paul The First Hermit's Feast Day, Celebrated 15 January in The West, on 5 January or 15 January in Eastern Orthodox Churches, and on 2 Meshir (9 February) in The Oriental Orthodox Churches. Saint Anthony described him as "The First Monk".

Saint Paul's Monastery (Deir Mar Boulos) is traditionally believed to be on the site of the cave where the Saint lived and where his remains are kept. The Monastery is located in the Eastern desert mountains of Egypt, near the Red Sea. The Cave Church of Saint Paul marks the spot where Saint Anthony, "the Father of Monasticism," and Saint Paul, "the First Hermit," are believed to have met.

He is also the Patron Saint of the Diocese of San Pablo (Philippines) and is the Titular of the Cathedral of the said Diocese in San Pablo City, Laguna, Philippines.

The Order of Saint Paul The First Hermit was founded in Hungary, in his honour, in the 13th-Century. He is usually represented with a palm tree, two lions and a raven.

The Coat of Arms of the Pauline Fathers.png

The Order of Saint Paul The First Hermit (Latin: Ordo Fratrum Sancti Pauli Primi Eremitae, Croatian: Red svetog Pavla prvog pustinjaka – pavlini, Czech: Řád paulínů, German: Pauliner, Hungarian: Szent Pál első remete szerzeteseinek rendje, Polish: Paulini – Zakon Świętego Pawła Pierwszego Pustelnika, Slovak: Rád Svätého Pavla Prvého Pustovníka) is a Monastic Order of The Roman Catholic Church, Founded in Hungary during the 13th-Century.

The Title is derived from The Hermit, Saint Paul of Thebes ( circa 345 A.D.), Canonised in 491 A.D., by Pope Gelasius I. After his death, a Monastery, taking him as its model, was Founded on Mount Sinai and still exists today.

14 January 2021

Saint Felix. Priest And Martyr. Whose Feast Day Is Today, 14 January.

Text from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal,
unless otherwise stated.

Saint Felix.
   Priest and Martyr.
   Feast Day 14 January.


Red Vestments.

Saint Felix rescues Saint Massimo (Saint Maximianus).
Church of San Felice (Saint Felix), Florence, Italy.
Photo: 5 January 2014.
Source: Own work.
Author: Sailko
(Wikimedia Commons)

This Holy Priest was born in Nola, Italy, and died towards 312 A.D.

Violently persecuted for The Faith, he earned the Title of Martyr, although he survived the cruel torments which he underwent.

Innumerable Miracles made his tomb famous. According to Saint Paulinus, who owed to him his conversion, Nola became, after Rome, the second place for Pilgrimages, so numerous in the 4th-Century A.D. Thus, The Divine Power of The Master is proclaimed by this glorious servant.

Mass: Lætábitur.

Church of San Felice (Saint Felix), Florence, Italy.
Photo: 12 May 2008.
Source: Own work.
Author: Sailko
(Wikimedia Commons)

The following Text is from "The Liturgical Year",
by Abbot Guéranger, O.S.B.

Volume 3.
Book II.

Saint Felix.
Priest and Martyr.

Encircled by the radiant splendours of The Epiphany, there comes before us, today, in company with Saint Hilary of Poitiers (Feast Day, today), a humble lover of the virtues of The Crib of Our Emmanuel.

Though withdrawn by God, Himself, from the fury of his persecutors, and thus from a Martyr's death which would have Crowned his cruel torments and imprisonment, Felix, nevertheless, has won the right to his Palm [Editor: of Martyrdom] by the invincible courage he showed amidst all his sufferings.

In Heaven, he was already accounted worthy of his reward, but he was yet for a long time to gladden and strengthen The Church on Earth by those examples of wonderful Poverty, Humility, and ardent Charity, which now claim for him a place in The Sacred Cycle [Editor: The Sanctoral Cycle] near to the lowly Manger of The King of Peace.

Saint Hilary Of Poitiers (300 A.D.-368 A.D.). “Hammer Of The Arians” (“Malleus Arianorum”). “Athanasius Of The West”. Bishop. Confessor. Doctor Of The Church.

Text from Wikipedia - the free encyclopædia,
unless otherwise stated.

English: Stained-Glass Window in The Choir of the Church of Saint Hilary of Boussais, Deux-Sèvres, France. It shows Saint Hilary entering Poitiers.
Français: Vitraux du chœur de l'église Saint-Hilaire de Boussais, Deux-Sèvres, France. Représentation de l'entrée de saint Hilaire à Poitiers.
Photo: 23 June 2009.
Source: Own work.
Author: Père Igor
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: The Nave of the Church of Saint Hilary-the-Great, Poitiers, France.
Français: Nef de l'église Saint-Hilaire-le-Grand à Poitiers.
Photo: 12 June 2012.
Source: Own work.
Author: GO69
(Wikimedia Commons)

Hilary (Hilarius) of Poitiers (circa 300 A.D. – circa 368 A.D.) was Bishop of Poitiers and is a Doctor of The Church. He was sometimes referred to as "The Hammer of the Arians" (Latin: Malleus Arianorum) and "The Athanasius of The West." His name, Hilary, comes from the Latin word for "happy" or "cheerful". His Feast Day is 14 January.

Hilary was born at Poitiers, either at the end of the 3rd-Century A.D., or the beginning of the 4th-Century A.D. His parents were pagans of distinction. He received a good education, including what had even then become somewhat rare in The West, some knowledge of Greek. He studied, later on, The Old and New Testament writings, with the result that he abandoned his Neo-Platonism for Christianity, and, with his wife and his daughter (Traditionally named Saint Abra), was Baptised and received into The Church.

The Christians of Poitiers so respected Hilary that, about 350 A.D. or 353 A.D., they unanimously elected him their Bishop. At that time, Arianism threatened to overrun The Western Church; Hilary undertook to repel the disruption. One of his first steps was to secure the Excommunication, by those of the Gallican hierarchy, who still remained Orthodox Christians, of Saturninus, the Arian Bishop of Arles, and of Ursacius and Valens, two of his prominent supporters.

English: The Ordination of Saint Hilary of Poitiers.
From a 14th-Century Manuscript.
Français: Ordination de saint Hilaire.
Date: 14th-Century; “Vie de saintes”.
Author: Richard de Montbaston et collaborateurs.
(Wikimedia Commons)

About the same time, Hilary wrote to Emperor Constantius II a remonstrance against the persecutions by which the Arians had sought to crush their opponents ("Ad Constantium Augustum liber primus", of which the most probable date is 355 A.D.). His efforts did not succeed at first, for, at The Synod of Biterrae (Béziers), summoned by The Emperor in 356 A.D., with the professed purpose of settling the long-standing dispute, an Imperial "Rescript" banished the new Bishop, along with Rhodanus of Toulouse, to Phrygia.

Hilary spent nearly four years in exile, although the reasons for this banishment remain obscure. The traditional explanation is that Hilary was exiled for refusing to subscribe to the condemnation of Athanasius and The Nicene Creed. More recently, several scholars have suggested that political opposition to Constantius and support of the usurper, Silvanus, may have led to Hilary's downfall.

While in Phrygia, however, he continued to govern his Diocese, as well as writing two of the most important of his contributions to Dogmatic and Polemical Theology: The "De synodis", or, "De fide Orientalium", an epistle addressed in 358 A.D., to the Semi-Arian Bishops in Gaul, Germany and Britain, expounding the true views (sometimes veiled in ambiguous words) of The Eastern Bishops on the Nicene controversy; and the "De trinitate libri XII", composed in 359 A.D. and 360 A.D., the first successful expression in Latin of that Council's theological subtleties, originally elaborated in Greek.

Although some members of Hilary's own party thought the first contribution had shown too great a forbearance towards the Arians, Hilary replied to their criticisms in the "Apologetica ad reprehensores libri de synodis responsa".

English: Illumination, showing Saint Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers,
from The Passionary of Weissenau (Weißenauer Passionale);
Fondation Bodmer, Coligny, Switzerland; Cod. Bodmer 127, fol. 144r.
Deutsch: Initial I und Miniatur des hl. Hilarius, ein totes Kind zum Leben erweckend;
aus dem Weißenauer Passionale; Fondation Bodmer,
Coligny, Switzerland; Cod. Bodmer 127, fol. 144r.
Date: Between 1170 and 1200.
Author: either an unknown master or "Frater Rufillus".
(Wikimedia Commons)

Hilary also attended several Synods during his time in exile, including The Council at Seleucia (359 A.D.), which saw the triumph of the "Homoion Party" and the forbidding of all discussion of The Divine Substance. In 360 A.D., Hilary tried unsuccessfully to secure a personal audience with Constantius, as well as to address The Council which met at Constantinople in 360 A.D.

When this Council ratified the decisions of Ariminum and Seleucia, Hilary responded with the bitter "In Constantium", which attacked Emperor Constantius as "Anti-Christ" and "Persecutor of Orthodox Christians". Hilary's urgent and repeated requests for public debates with his opponents, especially with Ursacius and Valens, proved at last so inconvenient that he was sent back to his Diocese, which he appears to have reached about 361 A.D., within a very short time of the accession of Emperor Julian.

On returning to his Diocese in 361 A.D., Hilary spent most of the first two or three years trying to persuade the local Clergy that the "Homoion" confession was merely a cover for traditional Arian sub-ordinationism. Thus, a number of Synods in Gaul condemned The Creed promulgated at The Council of Ariminium (359 A.D.).

In about 360 A.D., or 361 A.D., with Hilary's encouragement, Martin, the future Bishop of Tours, founded a Monastery, at Ligugé, in Hilary's Diocese.

English: The Saint Maixent School, Abbey Saint MaixentDepartment of Deux-Sèvres, France. Stained-Glass Windows in The Choir, showing Saint Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers.
Français: Vitrail consacré à cinq saints évêques liés à l' abbatiale, et un roi:
St Saturnin premier saint patron, St Quabit (?), St Hilaire,
St Léger qui fut abbé de Saint-Maixent, St Maxence alias St Maixent nom monastique d'Adjutor fondateur du monastère, St Agapit fondateur de la première communauté et Saint Louis protecteur de l' abbaye.
Source: Own work.
Author: Dvillafruela
(Wikimedia Commons)

In 364 A.D., Hilary extended his efforts once more beyond Gaul. He impeached Auxentius, Bishop of Milan, a man high in The Imperial Favour, as heterodox. Emperor Valentinian I accordingly summoned Hilary to Milan, to there maintain his charges. However, the supposed Heretic gave satisfactory answers to all the questions proposed.

Hilary denounced Auxentius as a hypocrite, as he himself was ignominiously expelled from Milan. Upon returning home, Hilary, in 365 A.D., published the "Contra Arianos vel Auxentium Mediolanensem liber", describing his unsuccessful efforts against Auxentius. He also (but perhaps at a somewhat earlier date) published the "Contra Constantium Augustum liber", accusing the lately-deceased Emperor as having been The Anti-Christ, a rebel against God, "a tyrant whose sole object had been to make a gift to the devil of that World for which Christ had suffered." According to Saint Jerome, Saint Hilary died in Poitiers, circa 368 A.D.

Recent research has distinguished between Hilary's thoughts before his period of exile in Phrygia, under Constantius, and the quality of his later major Works. While Hilary closely followed the two great Alexandrians, Origen and Athanasius, in exegesis and Christology, respectively, his Work shows many traces of vigorous independent thought.

Among Hilary's earliest Writings, completed some time before his exile in 356 A.D., is his "Commentarius in Evangelium Matthaei", an allegorical exegesis of The First Gospel. This is the first Latin Commentary on Matthew to have survived in its entirety. Hilary's "Commentary" was strongly influenced by Tertullian and Cyprian, and made use of several Classical writers, including Cicero, Quintilian, Pliny and the Roman historians.

The Church of the former Abbey of Saint-Maixent, in the Commune of
It contains Stained-Glass Windows depicting Saint Hilary.
Photo: 31 January 2010.
Source: Own work.
Author: MOSSOT
(Wikimedia Commons)

The Nave of the Abbey of Saint-Maixent, France, which contains
Stained-Glass Windows showing Saint Hilary of Poitiers (see, above).
Photo: 31 January 2010.
Source: Own work.
Author: MOSSOT
(Wikimedia Commons)

Hilary's expositions of The Psalms, "Tractatus super Psalmos", largely follow Origen, and were composed some time after Hilary returned from exile in 360 A.D. Since Jerome found the work incomplete, no-one knows whether Hilary originally commented on the whole Psalter. Now extant are the "Commentaries" on Psalms 1, 2, 9, 13, 14, 51-69, 91, and 118-150.

The third surviving exegetical writing by Hilary is the "Tractatus mysteriorum", preserved in a single Manuscript, first published in 1887.

Because Augustine cites part of the "Commentary on Romans" as, "by Sanctus Hilarius", it has been ascribed by various critics at different times to almost every known Hilary.

Hilary's major theological work was the twelve books, now known as "De Trinitate". This was composed largely during his exile, though perhaps not completed until his return to Gaul in 360 A.D.

English: Illustration from the Nuremberg Chronicle,
showing Saint Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers.
Deutsch: Illustration aus der Schedel'schen Weltchronik,
Blatt 131 recto
Date: 1493.
Source: Scan from original book.
Author: Michel Wolgemut, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff
(Wikimedia Commons)

Another important work is "De synodis", written early in 359 A.D., in preparation for The Councils of Ariminium and Seleucia.

Various writings comprise Hilary's 'Historical' Works. These include the "Liber II ad Constantium imperatorem", the "Liber in Constantium inperatorem", "Contra Arianos vel Auxentium Mediolanensem liber", and the various documents relating to the Arian controversy in "Fragmenta historica".

Some consider Hilary as the first Latin Christian Hymn-Writer, because Saint Jerome said Hilary produced a "Liber Hymnorum". Three Hymns are attributed to him, though none are indisputable.

Hilary is the pre-eminent Latin writer of the 4th-Century A.D., (before Ambrose). Augustine of Hippo called him "the illustrious Doctor of the Churches", and his Works continued to be highly-influential in later Centuries. Venantius Fortunatus wrote a Vita [Editor: "Life"] of Hilary, by 550 A.D., but few now consider it reliable. More trustworthy are the notices in Saint Jerome (De vir. illus. 100), Sulpicius Severus (Chron. ii. 39-45) and in Hilary's own Writings. Blessed Pope Pius IX formally recognised him as Universae Ecclesiae Doctor in 1851.

English: Pussemange (Belgium). Church of Saint Hilary (1872-1874).
Français: Pussemange (Belgique), l’église Saint-Hilaire (1872-1874).
Deutsch: Pussemange (Belgien), die Sint-Hilarius kirche (1872-1874). Walon: Pûsmadje (Bèljike), l’églîje Sint-Ilaîre (1872-1874).
Photo: 14 July 2007.
Source: Own work.
(Wikimedia Commons)

For English educational and legal institutions, Saint Hilary's Festival lies at the start of The Hilary Term, which begins in January. The name Hilary Term is given in Oxford University to The Term, beginning on 7 January, that includes his Feast. Some consider Saint Hilary of Poitiers as The Patron Saint of Lawyers. From his Writing, Saint Hilary's symbol came to be three books and a quill pen.

Sulpicius Severus' “Vita Sancti Martini” led to a cult of Saint Hilary, as well as of Saint Martin of Tours, which spread early to Western Britain. The villages of Saint Hilary, in Cornwall, England, and Glamorgan, Wales, and that of Llanilar, in Ceredigion, Wales, bear his name.

English: The Church of Sant'Ilario di Poitiers, France.
Italiano: L'autore io, chiesa di s.ilario, bedero valcuvia, libero uso.
Date: 12 January 2010 (original upload date).
Source: Transferred from it.wikipedia transferred to Commons
Author: Original uploader was Davide9191 at it.wikipedia
(Wikimedia Commons)

English: The 15th- and 16th-Century Parish Church of Saint Hilary,
Clohars-Fouesnant, Brittany, France.
Français: Clohars-Fouesnant : l'église paroissiale Saint-Hilaire
(XVe et XVIe siècles).
Photo: 9 August 2012.
Source: Own work.
Author: Moreau.henri
(Wikimedia Commons)

In France, most Dedications to Saint Hilary are West (and North) of The Massif Central, and the cult in this region eventually extended to Canada.

In North-West Italy, the Church of Sant’Ilario, at Casale Monferrato, was Dedicated to Saint Hilary as early as 380 A.D.

The Church of Saint Hilary-the-Great, Poitiers, France.
This File: 12 April 2008.
User: MainMa
(Wikimedia Commons)

The following Text is from The Saint Andrew Daily Missal.

Saint Hilary.
   Bishop, Confessor, and Doctor.
   Feast Day 14 January.


White Vestments.

After having persecuted The Church during the first Centuries A.D., the Christian, but at the same time Heretical, Emperors continued their attacks by supporting Arianism, which denied The Divinity of Christ.

In The Season after Epiphany, when Jesus affirms His Divinity by His Teaching and Miracles, the first Saint, whom The Church presents to us, is one of the most intrepid defenders of this fundamental Dogma of Christianity.

Saint Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers, France, in 352 A.D. (Communion), endowed with great natural and supernatural talent, for "The Lord has filled him with The Spirit of Wisdom and Intelligence" (Introit), fought with his pen and his eloquence against those "who closed their ears to Truth and opened them to fables" (Epistle).

English: Shrine, containing the Relics of Saint Hilary,
in the Crypt of the Church of Saint Hilary-the-Great, Poitiers, France.
Deutsch: Saint-Hilaire-de-Poitiers, Reliqienschrein in der Krypta.
Photo: August 2008.
Source: Own work.
Transferred from de.wikipedia to Commons
Author: KBWEi at de.wikipedia
(Wikimedia Commons)

This "Salt of the Earth", this Light of God's House, would not suffer, under the false excuse of favouring peace and unity, The Salt of True Doctrine to be corrupted or The Light of Truth to be hidden under a bushel.

"Having thus taught the practice of The Commandments, even to the last tittle, he is great in The Kingdom of Heaven" (Gospel), and The Church, which is the Earthly portion of this Kingdom, has, by the voice of Blessed Pope Pius IX, awarded him the Title of Doctor (Collect). He died in 368 A.D.

Let us have recourse to the intercession of Saint Hilary, in order always to be the intrepid defenders of The Divinity of Christ.

Mass: In Médio.
Commemoration: Saint Felix (Priest and Martyr), same day.
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